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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative force versus depth response of indentation test performed on coronal slices of bovine white and gray matter. White matter is approximately one-third stiffer than gray matter, adapted from (Budday et al. 2015b)
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Fig2: Representative force versus depth response of indentation test performed on coronal slices of bovine white and gray matter. White matter is approximately one-third stiffer than gray matter, adapted from (Budday et al. 2015b)

Mentions: Another study which focused on aging and regional variations suggested that the adult brain is 3–4 times stiffer than the young brain and that the brain stem is approximately 2–3 times stiffer than gray and white matter tissue (Chatelin et al. 2012). A recent study based on uniaxial tension, compression, and shear tests of human brain samples revealed a pronounced strain rate dependency for all three loading modes (Jin et al. 2013). White matter was stiffer than gray matter in compression and shear, and directional dependency was observed in white matter under shear. Indentation tests of bovine brain tissue revealed that white matter is about one-third stiffer than gray matter (Budday et al. 2015b; Dommelen et al. 2010) as illustrated in Fig. 2. White matter also showed a pronounced anisotropy (Feng et al. 2013; Hrapko et al. 2008; Prange and Margulies 2002; Velardi et al. 2006), displayed larger regional variations than gray matter (Dommelen et al. 2010), appeared to be more viscous, and responded less rapidly to mechanical loading (Budday et al. 2015b).Fig. 2


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Representative force versus depth response of indentation test performed on coronal slices of bovine white and gray matter. White matter is approximately one-third stiffer than gray matter, adapted from (Budday et al. 2015b)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig2: Representative force versus depth response of indentation test performed on coronal slices of bovine white and gray matter. White matter is approximately one-third stiffer than gray matter, adapted from (Budday et al. 2015b)
Mentions: Another study which focused on aging and regional variations suggested that the adult brain is 3–4 times stiffer than the young brain and that the brain stem is approximately 2–3 times stiffer than gray and white matter tissue (Chatelin et al. 2012). A recent study based on uniaxial tension, compression, and shear tests of human brain samples revealed a pronounced strain rate dependency for all three loading modes (Jin et al. 2013). White matter was stiffer than gray matter in compression and shear, and directional dependency was observed in white matter under shear. Indentation tests of bovine brain tissue revealed that white matter is about one-third stiffer than gray matter (Budday et al. 2015b; Dommelen et al. 2010) as illustrated in Fig. 2. White matter also showed a pronounced anisotropy (Feng et al. 2013; Hrapko et al. 2008; Prange and Margulies 2002; Velardi et al. 2006), displayed larger regional variations than gray matter (Dommelen et al. 2010), appeared to be more viscous, and responded less rapidly to mechanical loading (Budday et al. 2015b).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus