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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Axonal staining with beta-amyloid precursor protein (-APP). At low power, a wavy pattern of staining seen in ischemic areas (left); at higher power, rounded profiles stain brown, these represent individual swollen axons (right)
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Fig21: Axonal staining with beta-amyloid precursor protein (-APP). At low power, a wavy pattern of staining seen in ischemic areas (left); at higher power, rounded profiles stain brown, these represent individual swollen axons (right)

Mentions: Axonal Injury. Axonal injury can only be identified by microscopy and is demonstrated using the -APP stain, which highlights swellings and varicosities in damaged nerve fibers, see Fig. 21. These swellings do not represent damaged ends of severed axons, but rather reflect healing changes in response to disrupted axonal transport. While they may result from mechanical axonal damage, they can also result from many other etiologies, including deprived blood or oxygen supply and metabolic disturbance. Stretch injury leads to ultrastructural changes within the axon, both proximal and distal to the injury site, which may evolve for days after injury. While some changes are reversible, some may lead to permanent secondary axotomy (Maxwell et al. 2003).Fig. 21


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Axonal staining with beta-amyloid precursor protein (-APP). At low power, a wavy pattern of staining seen in ischemic areas (left); at higher power, rounded profiles stain brown, these represent individual swollen axons (right)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig21: Axonal staining with beta-amyloid precursor protein (-APP). At low power, a wavy pattern of staining seen in ischemic areas (left); at higher power, rounded profiles stain brown, these represent individual swollen axons (right)
Mentions: Axonal Injury. Axonal injury can only be identified by microscopy and is demonstrated using the -APP stain, which highlights swellings and varicosities in damaged nerve fibers, see Fig. 21. These swellings do not represent damaged ends of severed axons, but rather reflect healing changes in response to disrupted axonal transport. While they may result from mechanical axonal damage, they can also result from many other etiologies, including deprived blood or oxygen supply and metabolic disturbance. Stretch injury leads to ultrastructural changes within the axon, both proximal and distal to the injury site, which may evolve for days after injury. While some changes are reversible, some may lead to permanent secondary axotomy (Maxwell et al. 2003).Fig. 21

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus