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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dural bleeding. Fresh bleeding into the falx. White arrows indicate blood adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus and in the posterior falx ()
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Fig20: Dural bleeding. Fresh bleeding into the falx. White arrows indicate blood adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus and in the posterior falx ()

Mentions: Dural venous congestion and bleeding may represent a normal phenomenon and protect the brain during birth. The dural venous plexuses, which are the likely source of this bleeding, are larger and more complex at birth than at any time in later life (Mack et al. 2009), see Fig. 20. Venous blood flows from the dural sinuses via valveless neck veins to return to the heart. Studies in newborns have shown that pressure on the head, altered head position, obstruction of the jugular veins and mechanical positive pressure ventilation can all increase the pressure within the dural sinuses. The pressures exerted on the infant during labor and delivery may similarly compromise venous return to the heart and increase dural venous pressure. Were these pressures to be transmitted to veins in the brain they would bleed, but sphincters at the outflow cuffs of the bridging veins may prevent such back pressure (Chen et al. 2012). Since there are no sphincters on the small dural vessels (Squier et al. 2009), increased pressure in the dural sinuses may lead to reflux with venous congestion and bleeding into the dura which, if extensive, can leak into the subdural compartment and appear as subdural bleeding. The large venous lakes in the immature dura lesions have been assumed to represent reservoirs, additional protection against reflux of venous blood into the brain during the considerable pressure fluxes to which it is exposed at birth.Fig. 20


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Dural bleeding. Fresh bleeding into the falx. White arrows indicate blood adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus and in the posterior falx ()
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig20: Dural bleeding. Fresh bleeding into the falx. White arrows indicate blood adjacent to the superior sagittal sinus and in the posterior falx ()
Mentions: Dural venous congestion and bleeding may represent a normal phenomenon and protect the brain during birth. The dural venous plexuses, which are the likely source of this bleeding, are larger and more complex at birth than at any time in later life (Mack et al. 2009), see Fig. 20. Venous blood flows from the dural sinuses via valveless neck veins to return to the heart. Studies in newborns have shown that pressure on the head, altered head position, obstruction of the jugular veins and mechanical positive pressure ventilation can all increase the pressure within the dural sinuses. The pressures exerted on the infant during labor and delivery may similarly compromise venous return to the heart and increase dural venous pressure. Were these pressures to be transmitted to veins in the brain they would bleed, but sphincters at the outflow cuffs of the bridging veins may prevent such back pressure (Chen et al. 2012). Since there are no sphincters on the small dural vessels (Squier et al. 2009), increased pressure in the dural sinuses may lead to reflux with venous congestion and bleeding into the dura which, if extensive, can leak into the subdural compartment and appear as subdural bleeding. The large venous lakes in the immature dura lesions have been assumed to represent reservoirs, additional protection against reflux of venous blood into the brain during the considerable pressure fluxes to which it is exposed at birth.Fig. 20

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus