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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative nominal stress versus uniaxial stretch response of tension-compression test below the damage threshold performed on prismatic specimens of human white matter. Arrows indicate the loading direction, adapted from (Franceschini et al. 2006)
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Fig1: Representative nominal stress versus uniaxial stretch response of tension-compression test below the damage threshold performed on prismatic specimens of human white matter. Arrows indicate the loading direction, adapted from (Franceschini et al. 2006)

Mentions: The systematic study by Franceschini et al. Franceschini et al. (2006) documented in vitro experiments of human brain focusing on white matter tissue. In particular, uniaxial, quasi-static, cyclic tension-compression experiments with a speed of 5 mm/min were performed on 86 cylindrical and prismatic specimens from different orientations and locations within the brain. Figure 1 illustrates the characteristic stress–stretch response of white matter tissue: a peculiar nonlinear mechanical behavior, a typical “S-shaped” curve—similar to materials with filled elastomers—followed by a hysteresis with different stiffnesses in tension and compression and during loading and unloading, and permanent deformations. These typical features of the nominal stress versus uniaxial stretch response were found for all samples. A perfect fit was obtained with a phenomenological model for rubber-like materials, including the Mullins effect and permanent set (Dorfmann and Ogden 2004). When loaded up to failure, softening due to local failure occurred and the shape of the stress-strain curve changed qualitatively (Franceschini et al. 2006).Fig. 1


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Representative nominal stress versus uniaxial stretch response of tension-compression test below the damage threshold performed on prismatic specimens of human white matter. Arrows indicate the loading direction, adapted from (Franceschini et al. 2006)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig1: Representative nominal stress versus uniaxial stretch response of tension-compression test below the damage threshold performed on prismatic specimens of human white matter. Arrows indicate the loading direction, adapted from (Franceschini et al. 2006)
Mentions: The systematic study by Franceschini et al. Franceschini et al. (2006) documented in vitro experiments of human brain focusing on white matter tissue. In particular, uniaxial, quasi-static, cyclic tension-compression experiments with a speed of 5 mm/min were performed on 86 cylindrical and prismatic specimens from different orientations and locations within the brain. Figure 1 illustrates the characteristic stress–stretch response of white matter tissue: a peculiar nonlinear mechanical behavior, a typical “S-shaped” curve—similar to materials with filled elastomers—followed by a hysteresis with different stiffnesses in tension and compression and during loading and unloading, and permanent deformations. These typical features of the nominal stress versus uniaxial stretch response were found for all samples. A perfect fit was obtained with a phenomenological model for rubber-like materials, including the Mullins effect and permanent set (Dorfmann and Ogden 2004). When loaded up to failure, softening due to local failure occurred and the shape of the stress-strain curve changed qualitatively (Franceschini et al. 2006).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus