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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dural bleeding. Collagen fibers of the dura are stained pink; blood cells are stained red. Arrows indicate hemorrhage around the venous sinus (), between the fibers of the dura, and extending onto the deep surface
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Fig19: Dural bleeding. Collagen fibers of the dura are stained pink; blood cells are stained red. Arrows indicate hemorrhage around the venous sinus (), between the fibers of the dura, and extending onto the deep surface

Mentions: Dural Bleeding. The typical pattern of subdural hemorrhage in babies with the triad is of a bilateral thin film over the cerebral convexities and in the posterior interhemispheric fissure (Duhaime et al. 1998), a distribution seen also in a proportion of healthy newborn infants and corresponding to the most extensively vascularized areas of the dura (Tubbs et al. 2007). Because in vivo dura is adherent to the underlying arachnoid membrane (Haines et al. 1993), all dural bleeding is, by definition, intradural. When dural bleeding is sufficiently extensive, it cleaves the deepest dural cell layers, creating a subdural compartment. At autopsy, the clot will be observed within and beneath the native dura and above the arachnoid membrane, see Fig. 19.Fig. 19


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Dural bleeding. Collagen fibers of the dura are stained pink; blood cells are stained red. Arrows indicate hemorrhage around the venous sinus (), between the fibers of the dura, and extending onto the deep surface
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig19: Dural bleeding. Collagen fibers of the dura are stained pink; blood cells are stained red. Arrows indicate hemorrhage around the venous sinus (), between the fibers of the dura, and extending onto the deep surface
Mentions: Dural Bleeding. The typical pattern of subdural hemorrhage in babies with the triad is of a bilateral thin film over the cerebral convexities and in the posterior interhemispheric fissure (Duhaime et al. 1998), a distribution seen also in a proportion of healthy newborn infants and corresponding to the most extensively vascularized areas of the dura (Tubbs et al. 2007). Because in vivo dura is adherent to the underlying arachnoid membrane (Haines et al. 1993), all dural bleeding is, by definition, intradural. When dural bleeding is sufficiently extensive, it cleaves the deepest dural cell layers, creating a subdural compartment. At autopsy, the clot will be observed within and beneath the native dura and above the arachnoid membrane, see Fig. 19.Fig. 19

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus