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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Finite element head model of Kleiven 2007 and predicted maximum principal strain in a sports accident, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2013)
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Fig17: Finite element head model of Kleiven 2007 and predicted maximum principal strain in a sports accident, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2013)

Mentions: Numerical models to predict head injury were initially developed in the 1970s and early 1980s, but more recent numerical head models were not developed until the early 1990s (Goldsmith 2001). Since then, numerical head models were continuously refined to include more details of the anatomy and the mechanical behavior of the head and brain. In the past decade, three-dimensional numerical head models have been developed, containing viscoelastic material behavior and internal geometries that account for the main anatomical substructures including the ventricles and the falces (Kleiven 2007; Hrapko et al. 2009), see Fig. 17. Validation of head models often relies on the results of a number of cadaver experiments (Nahum et al. 1977; Hardy et al. 2001). The morphological heterogeneities of the cerebral cortex in the form of gyri and sulci are important for the deformation that is experienced by the tissue (Cloots et al. 2008). In the latest head models, more and more of these heterogeneities are incorporated. For example, the most recent three-dimensional head models even contain the detailed substructures of the cerebral cortex (Ho and Kleiven 2009; Chen and Ostoja-Starzewski 2010).Fig. 17


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Finite element head model of Kleiven 2007 and predicted maximum principal strain in a sports accident, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2013)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig17: Finite element head model of Kleiven 2007 and predicted maximum principal strain in a sports accident, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2013)
Mentions: Numerical models to predict head injury were initially developed in the 1970s and early 1980s, but more recent numerical head models were not developed until the early 1990s (Goldsmith 2001). Since then, numerical head models were continuously refined to include more details of the anatomy and the mechanical behavior of the head and brain. In the past decade, three-dimensional numerical head models have been developed, containing viscoelastic material behavior and internal geometries that account for the main anatomical substructures including the ventricles and the falces (Kleiven 2007; Hrapko et al. 2009), see Fig. 17. Validation of head models often relies on the results of a number of cadaver experiments (Nahum et al. 1977; Hardy et al. 2001). The morphological heterogeneities of the cerebral cortex in the form of gyri and sulci are important for the deformation that is experienced by the tissue (Cloots et al. 2008). In the latest head models, more and more of these heterogeneities are incorporated. For example, the most recent three-dimensional head models even contain the detailed substructures of the cerebral cortex (Ho and Kleiven 2009; Chen and Ostoja-Starzewski 2010).Fig. 17

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus