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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The length scales involved with traumatic brain injury ranging from decimeters at the head level to micrometers at the cellular level, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2012)
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Fig16: The length scales involved with traumatic brain injury ranging from decimeters at the head level to micrometers at the cellular level, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2012)

Mentions: Traumatic brain injury causes high rates of mortality and disability (Brooks et al. 1997; Waxweiler et al. 1995) and results from a mechanical insult on the head, often due to traffic accidents but also due to sports accidents and falls (Jennett 1996). As discussed in Sects. 4 and 5, the mechanical impact on the head is translated into deformation of the brain tissue, which sets in motion an extended neurochemical cascade on the cellular level (Gennarelli 1993; Morrison et al. 1998). Thereby, the mechanism of traumatic brain injury involves the biomechanics and mechanobiology at various length scales (Cloots et al. 2011, 2013; Meaney et al. 2014), see Fig. 16.Fig. 16


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

The length scales involved with traumatic brain injury ranging from decimeters at the head level to micrometers at the cellular level, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2012)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig16: The length scales involved with traumatic brain injury ranging from decimeters at the head level to micrometers at the cellular level, reproduced from Cloots et al. (2012)
Mentions: Traumatic brain injury causes high rates of mortality and disability (Brooks et al. 1997; Waxweiler et al. 1995) and results from a mechanical insult on the head, often due to traffic accidents but also due to sports accidents and falls (Jennett 1996). As discussed in Sects. 4 and 5, the mechanical impact on the head is translated into deformation of the brain tissue, which sets in motion an extended neurochemical cascade on the cellular level (Gennarelli 1993; Morrison et al. 1998). Thereby, the mechanism of traumatic brain injury involves the biomechanics and mechanobiology at various length scales (Cloots et al. 2011, 2013; Meaney et al. 2014), see Fig. 16.Fig. 16

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus