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Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Simulation of glioblastoma multiforme at diagnosis and patient death, left and right columns. The black contour denotes the detectable tumor margin by computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Colors indicate the gradient of malignant cell density with highest values at the center of the tumor and decreasing values toward the surrounding normal brain tissue, simulations by Gibin Powathil, University of Dundee
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Fig13: Simulation of glioblastoma multiforme at diagnosis and patient death, left and right columns. The black contour denotes the detectable tumor margin by computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Colors indicate the gradient of malignant cell density with highest values at the center of the tumor and decreasing values toward the surrounding normal brain tissue, simulations by Gibin Powathil, University of Dundee

Mentions: Radiotherapy is one of the primary therapeutic modalities for many primary and metastatic brain tumors. The gold standard to treat glioblastoma multiformes and other primary astrocytomas, still appears to be optimal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy. Despite significant progress, nearly all glioblastoma multiforme patients see tumor recurrence within the volume of tissue treated with high dose radiation and have a median survival time of approximately 12 months. Figure 13 shows the results of a computational simulation of glioblastoma multiforme growth and progression at diagnosis, left column, and at patient death, right column, and illustrates the potential of mathematical and computational modeling to assist therapeutic intervention.Fig. 13


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Simulation of glioblastoma multiforme at diagnosis and patient death, left and right columns. The black contour denotes the detectable tumor margin by computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Colors indicate the gradient of malignant cell density with highest values at the center of the tumor and decreasing values toward the surrounding normal brain tissue, simulations by Gibin Powathil, University of Dundee
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig13: Simulation of glioblastoma multiforme at diagnosis and patient death, left and right columns. The black contour denotes the detectable tumor margin by computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Colors indicate the gradient of malignant cell density with highest values at the center of the tumor and decreasing values toward the surrounding normal brain tissue, simulations by Gibin Powathil, University of Dundee
Mentions: Radiotherapy is one of the primary therapeutic modalities for many primary and metastatic brain tumors. The gold standard to treat glioblastoma multiformes and other primary astrocytomas, still appears to be optimal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy. Despite significant progress, nearly all glioblastoma multiforme patients see tumor recurrence within the volume of tissue treated with high dose radiation and have a median survival time of approximately 12 months. Figure 13 shows the results of a computational simulation of glioblastoma multiforme growth and progression at diagnosis, left column, and at patient death, right column, and illustrates the potential of mathematical and computational modeling to assist therapeutic intervention.Fig. 13

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus