Limits...
Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Analytical estimates of the brain surface morphology. The gyral wavelength  increases with increasing cortical thickness  (from blue to red), increasing stiffness ratio between cortex and subcortex  (left) and decreasing growth ratio between cortex and subcortex  (right)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig10: Analytical estimates of the brain surface morphology. The gyral wavelength increases with increasing cortical thickness (from blue to red), increasing stiffness ratio between cortex and subcortex (left) and decreasing growth ratio between cortex and subcortex (right)

Mentions: Figure 10 shows analytical estimates for the brain surface morphology for varying cortical thicknesses, and varying stiffness and growth ratios between cortex and subcortex (Budday et al. 2014). The graphs reveal that the gyral wavelength, the distance between two neighboring gyri, is directly proportional to the cortical thickness, to the third root of the stiffness ratio between cortex and subcortex, and to the subcortical growth rate. For the two extreme cases of slow and fast subcortical growth, the subcortex behaves either solid- or fluid-like. While a solid-like subcortex has no affect on the gyral wavelength, a fluid-like subcortex can significantly increase the gyral wavelength.Fig. 10


Mechanics of the brain: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

Goriely A, Geers MG, Holzapfel GA, Jayamohan J, Jérusalem A, Sivaloganathan S, Squier W, van Dommelen JA, Waters S, Kuhl E - Biomech Model Mechanobiol (2015)

Analytical estimates of the brain surface morphology. The gyral wavelength  increases with increasing cortical thickness  (from blue to red), increasing stiffness ratio between cortex and subcortex  (left) and decreasing growth ratio between cortex and subcortex  (right)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562999&req=5

Fig10: Analytical estimates of the brain surface morphology. The gyral wavelength increases with increasing cortical thickness (from blue to red), increasing stiffness ratio between cortex and subcortex (left) and decreasing growth ratio between cortex and subcortex (right)
Mentions: Figure 10 shows analytical estimates for the brain surface morphology for varying cortical thicknesses, and varying stiffness and growth ratios between cortex and subcortex (Budday et al. 2014). The graphs reveal that the gyral wavelength, the distance between two neighboring gyri, is directly proportional to the cortical thickness, to the third root of the stiffness ratio between cortex and subcortex, and to the subcortical growth rate. For the two extreme cases of slow and fast subcortical growth, the subcortex behaves either solid- or fluid-like. While a solid-like subcortex has no affect on the gyral wavelength, a fluid-like subcortex can significantly increase the gyral wavelength.Fig. 10

Bottom Line: Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain.This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics.The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK, Alain.Goriely@maths.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
The human brain is the continuous subject of extensive investigation aimed at understanding its behavior and function. Despite a clear evidence that mechanical factors play an important role in regulating brain activity, current research efforts focus mainly on the biochemical or electrophysiological activity of the brain. Here, we show that classical mechanical concepts including deformations, stretch, strain, strain rate, pressure, and stress play a crucial role in modulating both brain form and brain function. This opinion piece synthesizes expertise in applied mathematics, solid and fluid mechanics, biomechanics, experimentation, material sciences, neuropathology, and neurosurgery to address today's open questions at the forefront of neuromechanics. We critically review the current literature and discuss challenges related to neurodevelopment, cerebral edema, lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, hydrocephaly, craniectomy, spinal cord injury, tumor growth, traumatic brain injury, and shaken baby syndrome. The multi-disciplinary analysis of these various phenomena and pathologies presents new opportunities and suggests that mechanical modeling is a central tool to bridge the scales by synthesizing information from the molecular via the cellular and tissue all the way to the organ level.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus