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Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Lee W, Wang YC - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive.The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development.We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, No. 1, Changda Rd., Gueiren District, Tainan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these four substances and the mixtures of CAF with each sweetener. The embryos were exposed to ASP at 0.2 and 1.0 mM, SAC at 0.005 and 0.050 mM, CAF at 0.05 and 0.5 mM, or SUC at 29 and 146 mM, starting from less than 5 h post fertilization until hatch. Control embryos were treated with embryo solution only. Several endpoints were used to evaluate embryonic development. Some of the hatchlings were also tested for anxiety-like behavior with the white preference test. The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development. The most sensitive endpoints were the heart rate, eye density, and hatchling body length. The hatchlings of several treatment groups also exhibited anxiety-like behavior. We then used the Integrated Biological Response (IBR) as an index to evaluate the overall developmental toxicity of the substances. We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Results of the white-preference test from medaka hatchlings exposed to test substances during embryonic development. a Time lapse of the hatchlings crossing from the black to white area; b time distribution of hatchlings in the black and white areas during the first 15 s, c 15–60 s, and d 60–120 s; e number of squares hatchlings entered during the first 15 s and f the whole 120 s; g cumulative number of squares hatchlings entered during the 120 s test period; h slopes of the curves from (g). Different letters indicate significant differences, p < 0.05. Letters on the side of the columns in b–d are comparisons of the white areas, and those on top of the columns in e and f are comparisons of total number of squares. No letter was placed by the black areas in b–d because statistical analyses produced identical results to those of the white areas. In e and f, no significant difference was found among the black areas, while statistical analyses on the white areas produced identical results to those on the total numbers of squares. Values were expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control, p < 0.05. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1
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Fig3: Results of the white-preference test from medaka hatchlings exposed to test substances during embryonic development. a Time lapse of the hatchlings crossing from the black to white area; b time distribution of hatchlings in the black and white areas during the first 15 s, c 15–60 s, and d 60–120 s; e number of squares hatchlings entered during the first 15 s and f the whole 120 s; g cumulative number of squares hatchlings entered during the 120 s test period; h slopes of the curves from (g). Different letters indicate significant differences, p < 0.05. Letters on the side of the columns in b–d are comparisons of the white areas, and those on top of the columns in e and f are comparisons of total number of squares. No letter was placed by the black areas in b–d because statistical analyses produced identical results to those of the white areas. In e and f, no significant difference was found among the black areas, while statistical analyses on the white areas produced identical results to those on the total numbers of squares. Values were expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control, p < 0.05. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1

Mentions: As there was no significant difference between pairs of substances at different concentrations, their data were combined for analyses (Fig. 3). Representative recordings of the white preference test from the control and CAF + SUC hatchlings are available as Additional files 1 and 2.Fig. 3


Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Lee W, Wang YC - Springerplus (2015)

Results of the white-preference test from medaka hatchlings exposed to test substances during embryonic development. a Time lapse of the hatchlings crossing from the black to white area; b time distribution of hatchlings in the black and white areas during the first 15 s, c 15–60 s, and d 60–120 s; e number of squares hatchlings entered during the first 15 s and f the whole 120 s; g cumulative number of squares hatchlings entered during the 120 s test period; h slopes of the curves from (g). Different letters indicate significant differences, p < 0.05. Letters on the side of the columns in b–d are comparisons of the white areas, and those on top of the columns in e and f are comparisons of total number of squares. No letter was placed by the black areas in b–d because statistical analyses produced identical results to those of the white areas. In e and f, no significant difference was found among the black areas, while statistical analyses on the white areas produced identical results to those on the total numbers of squares. Values were expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control, p < 0.05. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562911&req=5

Fig3: Results of the white-preference test from medaka hatchlings exposed to test substances during embryonic development. a Time lapse of the hatchlings crossing from the black to white area; b time distribution of hatchlings in the black and white areas during the first 15 s, c 15–60 s, and d 60–120 s; e number of squares hatchlings entered during the first 15 s and f the whole 120 s; g cumulative number of squares hatchlings entered during the 120 s test period; h slopes of the curves from (g). Different letters indicate significant differences, p < 0.05. Letters on the side of the columns in b–d are comparisons of the white areas, and those on top of the columns in e and f are comparisons of total number of squares. No letter was placed by the black areas in b–d because statistical analyses produced identical results to those of the white areas. In e and f, no significant difference was found among the black areas, while statistical analyses on the white areas produced identical results to those on the total numbers of squares. Values were expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control, p < 0.05. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1
Mentions: As there was no significant difference between pairs of substances at different concentrations, their data were combined for analyses (Fig. 3). Representative recordings of the white preference test from the control and CAF + SUC hatchlings are available as Additional files 1 and 2.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive.The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development.We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, No. 1, Changda Rd., Gueiren District, Tainan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these four substances and the mixtures of CAF with each sweetener. The embryos were exposed to ASP at 0.2 and 1.0 mM, SAC at 0.005 and 0.050 mM, CAF at 0.05 and 0.5 mM, or SUC at 29 and 146 mM, starting from less than 5 h post fertilization until hatch. Control embryos were treated with embryo solution only. Several endpoints were used to evaluate embryonic development. Some of the hatchlings were also tested for anxiety-like behavior with the white preference test. The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development. The most sensitive endpoints were the heart rate, eye density, and hatchling body length. The hatchlings of several treatment groups also exhibited anxiety-like behavior. We then used the Integrated Biological Response (IBR) as an index to evaluate the overall developmental toxicity of the substances. We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus