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Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Lee W, Wang YC - Springerplus (2015)

Bottom Line: However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive.The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development.We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, No. 1, Changda Rd., Gueiren District, Tainan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these four substances and the mixtures of CAF with each sweetener. The embryos were exposed to ASP at 0.2 and 1.0 mM, SAC at 0.005 and 0.050 mM, CAF at 0.05 and 0.5 mM, or SUC at 29 and 146 mM, starting from less than 5 h post fertilization until hatch. Control embryos were treated with embryo solution only. Several endpoints were used to evaluate embryonic development. Some of the hatchlings were also tested for anxiety-like behavior with the white preference test. The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development. The most sensitive endpoints were the heart rate, eye density, and hatchling body length. The hatchlings of several treatment groups also exhibited anxiety-like behavior. We then used the Integrated Biological Response (IBR) as an index to evaluate the overall developmental toxicity of the substances. We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of sucrose (SUC), aspartame (ASP), saccharin (SAC), caffeine (CAF), and CAF combined with each sweetener on medaka development at 3 days post fertilization or at hatch. Data were percents of control values and expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control or between pairs of groups, p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1
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Fig2: Effects of sucrose (SUC), aspartame (ASP), saccharin (SAC), caffeine (CAF), and CAF combined with each sweetener on medaka development at 3 days post fertilization or at hatch. Data were percents of control values and expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control or between pairs of groups, p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1

Mentions: The heart rate appeared to be the most sensitive endpoint for the tested substances. At 2–3 dpf (Fig. 2; only data at 3 dpf were shown), most of the treatment groups had significantly higher heart rates than the control. The increases of the heart rates ranged widely, from 7.8 % (ASP1) to 26.2 % (CAF2) at 3 dpf. In addition, CAF2 combined with SUC1, ASP1, and SAC1 had significantly lower heart rate than CAF2 alone. In regard to dose-dependence, the pairs of SAC1/2 and CAF1/2 at 3 dpf exhibited such an effect, with higher concentrations causing significantly higher heart rates.Fig. 2


Assessing developmental toxicity of caffeine and sweeteners in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Lee W, Wang YC - Springerplus (2015)

Effects of sucrose (SUC), aspartame (ASP), saccharin (SAC), caffeine (CAF), and CAF combined with each sweetener on medaka development at 3 days post fertilization or at hatch. Data were percents of control values and expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control or between pairs of groups, p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562911&req=5

Fig2: Effects of sucrose (SUC), aspartame (ASP), saccharin (SAC), caffeine (CAF), and CAF combined with each sweetener on medaka development at 3 days post fertilization or at hatch. Data were percents of control values and expressed as mean ± SEM. *Significantly different from the control or between pairs of groups, p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001. The abbreviations and concentrations of the substances are listed in Table 1
Mentions: The heart rate appeared to be the most sensitive endpoint for the tested substances. At 2–3 dpf (Fig. 2; only data at 3 dpf were shown), most of the treatment groups had significantly higher heart rates than the control. The increases of the heart rates ranged widely, from 7.8 % (ASP1) to 26.2 % (CAF2) at 3 dpf. In addition, CAF2 combined with SUC1, ASP1, and SAC1 had significantly lower heart rate than CAF2 alone. In regard to dose-dependence, the pairs of SAC1/2 and CAF1/2 at 3 dpf exhibited such an effect, with higher concentrations causing significantly higher heart rates.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive.The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development.We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, No. 1, Changda Rd., Gueiren District, Tainan, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
The use of artificial sweeteners (ASWs) has increased and become more widespread, and consequently ASWs have appeared in aquatic environments around the world. However, their safety to the health of humans and wildlife remains inconclusive. In this study, using medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes), we investigated developmental toxicity of aspartame (ASP) and saccharin (SAC). Since ASWs are often consumed with caffeine (CAF) and CAF with sucrose (SUC), we tested biological activities of these four substances and the mixtures of CAF with each sweetener. The embryos were exposed to ASP at 0.2 and 1.0 mM, SAC at 0.005 and 0.050 mM, CAF at 0.05 and 0.5 mM, or SUC at 29 and 146 mM, starting from less than 5 h post fertilization until hatch. Control embryos were treated with embryo solution only. Several endpoints were used to evaluate embryonic development. Some of the hatchlings were also tested for anxiety-like behavior with the white preference test. The results showed that all four substances and the mixtures of CAF with the sweeteners affected development. The most sensitive endpoints were the heart rate, eye density, and hatchling body length. The hatchlings of several treatment groups also exhibited anxiety-like behavior. We then used the Integrated Biological Response (IBR) as an index to evaluate the overall developmental toxicity of the substances. We found that the ranking of developmental toxicity was SAC > CAF > ASP > SUC, and there was a cumulative effect when CAF was combined with the sweeteners.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus