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The effectiveness of racket-sport intervention on visual perception and executive functions in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

Chen MD, Tsai HY, Wang CC, Wuang YP - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Bottom Line: Children (n=91) were randomly assigned to intervention with either SOT (n=46, 20 females, mean age =10.9±3.9 years) or TTT (n=45, 21 females, mean age =10.6±3.6 years), while another 41 (18 females, mean age =10.7±4.0 years) served as controls.At postintervention, the two intervention groups significantly outperformed the control group on all measures of visual perception and executive functions.Implications for clinical professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Occupational Therapy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Department of Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of table tennis training (TTT) versus standard occupational therapy (SOT) on visual perception and executive functions in school-age children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

Subjects and methods: Children (n=91) were randomly assigned to intervention with either SOT (n=46, 20 females, mean age =10.9±3.9 years) or TTT (n=45, 21 females, mean age =10.6±3.6 years), while another 41 (18 females, mean age =10.7±4.0 years) served as controls. Both the SOT and TTT programs were administered 60 minutes per session, three times a week, for 16 weeks. The Test of Visual Perceptual Skill-third edition (TVPS-3) was used to evaluate visual perception, and executive functions were assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-card version (WCST-64) and the Stroop test.

Results: At postintervention, the two intervention groups significantly outperformed the control group on all measures of visual perception and executive functions. Participants in the TTT group had significantly greater before-after changes on all measures of the TVPS-3, WCST-64, and the Stroop test compared to the SOT and controls.

Conclusion: Table tennis could be considered a therapy option while treating cognitive/perceptual problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning. Implications for clinical professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Participant flowchart.Abbreviations: TTT, table tennis training; SOT, standard occupational therapy.
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f1-ndt-11-2287: Participant flowchart.Abbreviations: TTT, table tennis training; SOT, standard occupational therapy.

Mentions: Using a computer-generated random table, the other 94 children were randomly assigned to two equal-size intervention groups (Figure 1). Due to the low attendance rate (absence rate >50%), three children dropped out and 91 completed all treatment sessions and assessments (with 45 and 46 for the TTT and SOT groups, respectively). Sample demographics and anthropometric details are presented in Table 1, and all the attributes were evenly distributed among the three groups. The three groups did not differ significantly in age (F=0.13, P=0.88), height (F=6.63, P=0.62), weight (F=14.79, P=0.75), sex (χ2=2.84, P=0.09), or numbers of ID classification (χ2=3.33, P=0.08). There was no significant difference between two of the three groups either. Before performing the MANOVA, Box’s M-test of equality of covariance matrices was conducted to test the assumptions of homogeneity of variance. Box’s M-test yielded a nonsignificant result (M=365.57, P=0.82); therefore, the assumption of homogeneity of variance–covariance matrices was supported. The MANOVA results demonstrated no significant overall group effect (Wilks’ λ=0.04, F32,254=122.33, P=0.07, partial η2=0.03). None of the univariate between-group comparisons for the TVPS-3, WCST-64, or Stroop was significant (all P>0.01). In other words, there was no significant preintervention difference in test scores between the control group and either of the intervention groups.


The effectiveness of racket-sport intervention on visual perception and executive functions in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

Chen MD, Tsai HY, Wang CC, Wuang YP - Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat (2015)

Participant flowchart.Abbreviations: TTT, table tennis training; SOT, standard occupational therapy.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562764&req=5

f1-ndt-11-2287: Participant flowchart.Abbreviations: TTT, table tennis training; SOT, standard occupational therapy.
Mentions: Using a computer-generated random table, the other 94 children were randomly assigned to two equal-size intervention groups (Figure 1). Due to the low attendance rate (absence rate >50%), three children dropped out and 91 completed all treatment sessions and assessments (with 45 and 46 for the TTT and SOT groups, respectively). Sample demographics and anthropometric details are presented in Table 1, and all the attributes were evenly distributed among the three groups. The three groups did not differ significantly in age (F=0.13, P=0.88), height (F=6.63, P=0.62), weight (F=14.79, P=0.75), sex (χ2=2.84, P=0.09), or numbers of ID classification (χ2=3.33, P=0.08). There was no significant difference between two of the three groups either. Before performing the MANOVA, Box’s M-test of equality of covariance matrices was conducted to test the assumptions of homogeneity of variance. Box’s M-test yielded a nonsignificant result (M=365.57, P=0.82); therefore, the assumption of homogeneity of variance–covariance matrices was supported. The MANOVA results demonstrated no significant overall group effect (Wilks’ λ=0.04, F32,254=122.33, P=0.07, partial η2=0.03). None of the univariate between-group comparisons for the TVPS-3, WCST-64, or Stroop was significant (all P>0.01). In other words, there was no significant preintervention difference in test scores between the control group and either of the intervention groups.

Bottom Line: Children (n=91) were randomly assigned to intervention with either SOT (n=46, 20 females, mean age =10.9±3.9 years) or TTT (n=45, 21 females, mean age =10.6±3.6 years), while another 41 (18 females, mean age =10.7±4.0 years) served as controls.At postintervention, the two intervention groups significantly outperformed the control group on all measures of visual perception and executive functions.Implications for clinical professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Occupational Therapy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan ; Department of Rehabilitation, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of table tennis training (TTT) versus standard occupational therapy (SOT) on visual perception and executive functions in school-age children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

Subjects and methods: Children (n=91) were randomly assigned to intervention with either SOT (n=46, 20 females, mean age =10.9±3.9 years) or TTT (n=45, 21 females, mean age =10.6±3.6 years), while another 41 (18 females, mean age =10.7±4.0 years) served as controls. Both the SOT and TTT programs were administered 60 minutes per session, three times a week, for 16 weeks. The Test of Visual Perceptual Skill-third edition (TVPS-3) was used to evaluate visual perception, and executive functions were assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-card version (WCST-64) and the Stroop test.

Results: At postintervention, the two intervention groups significantly outperformed the control group on all measures of visual perception and executive functions. Participants in the TTT group had significantly greater before-after changes on all measures of the TVPS-3, WCST-64, and the Stroop test compared to the SOT and controls.

Conclusion: Table tennis could be considered a therapy option while treating cognitive/perceptual problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning. Implications for clinical professionals and recommendations for further research are discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus