Limits...
Phytotoxin coronatine enhances heat tolerance via maintaining photosynthetic performance in wheat based on Electrophoresis and TOF-MS analysis.

Zhou Y, Zhang M, Li J, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins.We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis.Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulator, Ministry of Education, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, No 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Coronatine (COR) is a phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Its structure is similar to Jasmonates, which play a number of diverse roles in plant defense. Both have the COI1 plant receptor, so coronatine can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. In addition to the hormone system, coronatine affects plant nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure. In this study, we first examined a typical nitrogen-losing phenotype, and used the polyacrylamide gel approach to demonstrate soluble total protein patterns in a time-course experiment under different temperature conditions. We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins. We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis. Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrated that coronatine enhanced heat tolerance by regulating nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance and reduce yield loss under heat stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Model of coronatine worked in plant cell.When coronatine enters a plant cell, two branches of signaling occur. One is the hormone system. Coronatine and Jasmonate share the same receptor, COI1. The receptors of IAA, JA and Gibberellins are components of the SCF complex that consists of ASK, CUL and RBX, so coronatine can affect IAA, JA and Gibberellins pathways by receptor COI1. Coronatine also promotes stomata reopening through the E3 ligase subunit COI1. The pathway for stomatal closure involves triggering of the salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The precursor of the ethylene ACC is similar to CMA, which is the precursor of coronatine. Thus coronatine improves plant production of ethylene. In brief, coronatine can manipulate almost every hormone signaling pathway. The other is physiological metabolism, coronatine mainly affects nitrogenous metabolism first. High concentration coronatine can lead to leaf chlorosis, but low concentration coronatine makes wheat leaves show a greener phenotype under heat stress. This function works by regulating protein processed and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance in plants.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562268&req=5

f5: Model of coronatine worked in plant cell.When coronatine enters a plant cell, two branches of signaling occur. One is the hormone system. Coronatine and Jasmonate share the same receptor, COI1. The receptors of IAA, JA and Gibberellins are components of the SCF complex that consists of ASK, CUL and RBX, so coronatine can affect IAA, JA and Gibberellins pathways by receptor COI1. Coronatine also promotes stomata reopening through the E3 ligase subunit COI1. The pathway for stomatal closure involves triggering of the salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The precursor of the ethylene ACC is similar to CMA, which is the precursor of coronatine. Thus coronatine improves plant production of ethylene. In brief, coronatine can manipulate almost every hormone signaling pathway. The other is physiological metabolism, coronatine mainly affects nitrogenous metabolism first. High concentration coronatine can lead to leaf chlorosis, but low concentration coronatine makes wheat leaves show a greener phenotype under heat stress. This function works by regulating protein processed and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance in plants.

Mentions: For our study, the plant phytotoxin coronatine showed a concentration effect similar to phytohormone auxin (IAA). High auxin amounts inhibit plant growth, while low auxin amounts can enhance plant growth. Similarly, high coronatine amounts lead to leaf chlorosis22, but low coronatine amounts could preserve the green phenotype of wheat leaves under heat stress. The phenotype of nitrogen loss caused us to focus on nitrogenous metabolism, since nitrogen is a key component of protein. Abiotic stresses usually cause protein dysfunction35. Maintaining proteins in their functional conformations is particularly important for cell survival under stress. Coronatine sensitive protein disulfide isomerase 2 is involved in protein structure rebuilding. CPN-60 alpha and some heat shock proteins are responsible for protein folding, assembly, translocation and degradation in many cellular processes and can assist in protein refolding under stress conditions. They play a crucial role in protecting plants against stress by reestablishing normal protein conformation. We found twenty two coronatine inducible proteins located in chloroplast, which is distributed in the chloroplast envelope, chloroplast stroma and chloroplast thylakoid membrane. Some proteins are a primary component of chloroplast ultrastructure. The 30S ribosomal protein S1 is involved in chlorophyll biosynthetic process. OsFTSH2 plays a key role in PSII associated light-harvesting complex II catabolic process. Coronatine pretreatment increased their stability, so it increased the stability of chloroplast ultrastructure and membrane to maintain a higher photosynthesis under heat stress. Take together, in physiological metabolism, coronatine mainly affects nitrogenous metabolism via regulating protein processes and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance in wheat (Fig. 5).


Phytotoxin coronatine enhances heat tolerance via maintaining photosynthetic performance in wheat based on Electrophoresis and TOF-MS analysis.

Zhou Y, Zhang M, Li J, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L - Sci Rep (2015)

Model of coronatine worked in plant cell.When coronatine enters a plant cell, two branches of signaling occur. One is the hormone system. Coronatine and Jasmonate share the same receptor, COI1. The receptors of IAA, JA and Gibberellins are components of the SCF complex that consists of ASK, CUL and RBX, so coronatine can affect IAA, JA and Gibberellins pathways by receptor COI1. Coronatine also promotes stomata reopening through the E3 ligase subunit COI1. The pathway for stomatal closure involves triggering of the salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The precursor of the ethylene ACC is similar to CMA, which is the precursor of coronatine. Thus coronatine improves plant production of ethylene. In brief, coronatine can manipulate almost every hormone signaling pathway. The other is physiological metabolism, coronatine mainly affects nitrogenous metabolism first. High concentration coronatine can lead to leaf chlorosis, but low concentration coronatine makes wheat leaves show a greener phenotype under heat stress. This function works by regulating protein processed and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance in plants.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562268&req=5

f5: Model of coronatine worked in plant cell.When coronatine enters a plant cell, two branches of signaling occur. One is the hormone system. Coronatine and Jasmonate share the same receptor, COI1. The receptors of IAA, JA and Gibberellins are components of the SCF complex that consists of ASK, CUL and RBX, so coronatine can affect IAA, JA and Gibberellins pathways by receptor COI1. Coronatine also promotes stomata reopening through the E3 ligase subunit COI1. The pathway for stomatal closure involves triggering of the salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The precursor of the ethylene ACC is similar to CMA, which is the precursor of coronatine. Thus coronatine improves plant production of ethylene. In brief, coronatine can manipulate almost every hormone signaling pathway. The other is physiological metabolism, coronatine mainly affects nitrogenous metabolism first. High concentration coronatine can lead to leaf chlorosis, but low concentration coronatine makes wheat leaves show a greener phenotype under heat stress. This function works by regulating protein processed and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance in plants.
Mentions: For our study, the plant phytotoxin coronatine showed a concentration effect similar to phytohormone auxin (IAA). High auxin amounts inhibit plant growth, while low auxin amounts can enhance plant growth. Similarly, high coronatine amounts lead to leaf chlorosis22, but low coronatine amounts could preserve the green phenotype of wheat leaves under heat stress. The phenotype of nitrogen loss caused us to focus on nitrogenous metabolism, since nitrogen is a key component of protein. Abiotic stresses usually cause protein dysfunction35. Maintaining proteins in their functional conformations is particularly important for cell survival under stress. Coronatine sensitive protein disulfide isomerase 2 is involved in protein structure rebuilding. CPN-60 alpha and some heat shock proteins are responsible for protein folding, assembly, translocation and degradation in many cellular processes and can assist in protein refolding under stress conditions. They play a crucial role in protecting plants against stress by reestablishing normal protein conformation. We found twenty two coronatine inducible proteins located in chloroplast, which is distributed in the chloroplast envelope, chloroplast stroma and chloroplast thylakoid membrane. Some proteins are a primary component of chloroplast ultrastructure. The 30S ribosomal protein S1 is involved in chlorophyll biosynthetic process. OsFTSH2 plays a key role in PSII associated light-harvesting complex II catabolic process. Coronatine pretreatment increased their stability, so it increased the stability of chloroplast ultrastructure and membrane to maintain a higher photosynthesis under heat stress. Take together, in physiological metabolism, coronatine mainly affects nitrogenous metabolism via regulating protein processes and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance in wheat (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins.We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis.Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulator, Ministry of Education, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, No 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Coronatine (COR) is a phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Its structure is similar to Jasmonates, which play a number of diverse roles in plant defense. Both have the COI1 plant receptor, so coronatine can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. In addition to the hormone system, coronatine affects plant nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure. In this study, we first examined a typical nitrogen-losing phenotype, and used the polyacrylamide gel approach to demonstrate soluble total protein patterns in a time-course experiment under different temperature conditions. We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins. We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis. Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrated that coronatine enhanced heat tolerance by regulating nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance and reduce yield loss under heat stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus