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Phytotoxin coronatine enhances heat tolerance via maintaining photosynthetic performance in wheat based on Electrophoresis and TOF-MS analysis.

Zhou Y, Zhang M, Li J, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins.We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis.Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulator, Ministry of Education, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, No 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Coronatine (COR) is a phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Its structure is similar to Jasmonates, which play a number of diverse roles in plant defense. Both have the COI1 plant receptor, so coronatine can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. In addition to the hormone system, coronatine affects plant nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure. In this study, we first examined a typical nitrogen-losing phenotype, and used the polyacrylamide gel approach to demonstrate soluble total protein patterns in a time-course experiment under different temperature conditions. We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins. We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis. Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrated that coronatine enhanced heat tolerance by regulating nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance and reduce yield loss under heat stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Coronatine induced photosynthesis and yield variation.(a) Photosynthetic performance of different treatment. Four treatments: Control: outside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: outside the shed for 7days after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after coronatine pretreatment no shed for 24 hrs. The photosynthetic capacity was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (b) Chlorophyll fluorescence of different treatment. The chlorophyll fluorescence was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (c) Phenotype of wheat grain in different treatment. (d) TKW (Thousand Kernel Weight) of different treatment corresponding with figure C. The TKW was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (e) Simplified shed for heat stress. The height of shed is 2.5 m, and 1.5 m width, 0.5 m height opened at the bottom for gas exchange. Picture was taken by Yuyi Zhou. (f) The different temperature between inside and outside the shed. The temperature recorded by auto-thermometer through the whole day.
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f4: Coronatine induced photosynthesis and yield variation.(a) Photosynthetic performance of different treatment. Four treatments: Control: outside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: outside the shed for 7days after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after coronatine pretreatment no shed for 24 hrs. The photosynthetic capacity was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (b) Chlorophyll fluorescence of different treatment. The chlorophyll fluorescence was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (c) Phenotype of wheat grain in different treatment. (d) TKW (Thousand Kernel Weight) of different treatment corresponding with figure C. The TKW was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (e) Simplified shed for heat stress. The height of shed is 2.5 m, and 1.5 m width, 0.5 m height opened at the bottom for gas exchange. Picture was taken by Yuyi Zhou. (f) The different temperature between inside and outside the shed. The temperature recorded by auto-thermometer through the whole day.

Mentions: We chose both photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics to reveal the causative mechanism. When heat stress occurred, the photosynthetic rate of coronatine pretreated plants was 20.1% higher than it in control plants, and chlorophyll maximum quantum yield was 15.6% higher than the control (Fig. 4a,b). Mature grain was small and shriveled under heat stress, but coronatine pretreated kernels remained plump, with TKW (Thousand Kernel Weight) 8.2% higher than control (Fig. 4c,d). This result also revealed in field test (Zhou33, 2013, Fig. 4e,f). All result suggested that coronatine could reduce yield loss by enhancing photosynthetic performance under heat stress.


Phytotoxin coronatine enhances heat tolerance via maintaining photosynthetic performance in wheat based on Electrophoresis and TOF-MS analysis.

Zhou Y, Zhang M, Li J, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L - Sci Rep (2015)

Coronatine induced photosynthesis and yield variation.(a) Photosynthetic performance of different treatment. Four treatments: Control: outside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: outside the shed for 7days after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after coronatine pretreatment no shed for 24 hrs. The photosynthetic capacity was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (b) Chlorophyll fluorescence of different treatment. The chlorophyll fluorescence was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (c) Phenotype of wheat grain in different treatment. (d) TKW (Thousand Kernel Weight) of different treatment corresponding with figure C. The TKW was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (e) Simplified shed for heat stress. The height of shed is 2.5 m, and 1.5 m width, 0.5 m height opened at the bottom for gas exchange. Picture was taken by Yuyi Zhou. (f) The different temperature between inside and outside the shed. The temperature recorded by auto-thermometer through the whole day.
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f4: Coronatine induced photosynthesis and yield variation.(a) Photosynthetic performance of different treatment. Four treatments: Control: outside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: outside the shed for 7days after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: inside the shed for 7 days after coronatine pretreatment no shed for 24 hrs. The photosynthetic capacity was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (b) Chlorophyll fluorescence of different treatment. The chlorophyll fluorescence was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (c) Phenotype of wheat grain in different treatment. (d) TKW (Thousand Kernel Weight) of different treatment corresponding with figure C. The TKW was shown as mean ± SD from 3 replicates (n = 20 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter were significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test). (e) Simplified shed for heat stress. The height of shed is 2.5 m, and 1.5 m width, 0.5 m height opened at the bottom for gas exchange. Picture was taken by Yuyi Zhou. (f) The different temperature between inside and outside the shed. The temperature recorded by auto-thermometer through the whole day.
Mentions: We chose both photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics to reveal the causative mechanism. When heat stress occurred, the photosynthetic rate of coronatine pretreated plants was 20.1% higher than it in control plants, and chlorophyll maximum quantum yield was 15.6% higher than the control (Fig. 4a,b). Mature grain was small and shriveled under heat stress, but coronatine pretreated kernels remained plump, with TKW (Thousand Kernel Weight) 8.2% higher than control (Fig. 4c,d). This result also revealed in field test (Zhou33, 2013, Fig. 4e,f). All result suggested that coronatine could reduce yield loss by enhancing photosynthetic performance under heat stress.

Bottom Line: We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins.We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis.Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulator, Ministry of Education, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, No 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Coronatine (COR) is a phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Its structure is similar to Jasmonates, which play a number of diverse roles in plant defense. Both have the COI1 plant receptor, so coronatine can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. In addition to the hormone system, coronatine affects plant nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure. In this study, we first examined a typical nitrogen-losing phenotype, and used the polyacrylamide gel approach to demonstrate soluble total protein patterns in a time-course experiment under different temperature conditions. We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins. We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis. Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrated that coronatine enhanced heat tolerance by regulating nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance and reduce yield loss under heat stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus