Limits...
Phytotoxin coronatine enhances heat tolerance via maintaining photosynthetic performance in wheat based on Electrophoresis and TOF-MS analysis.

Zhou Y, Zhang M, Li J, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins.We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis.Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulator, Ministry of Education, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, No 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Coronatine (COR) is a phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Its structure is similar to Jasmonates, which play a number of diverse roles in plant defense. Both have the COI1 plant receptor, so coronatine can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. In addition to the hormone system, coronatine affects plant nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure. In this study, we first examined a typical nitrogen-losing phenotype, and used the polyacrylamide gel approach to demonstrate soluble total protein patterns in a time-course experiment under different temperature conditions. We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins. We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis. Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrated that coronatine enhanced heat tolerance by regulating nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance and reduce yield loss under heat stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Coronatine induced physiological phenotype in wheat under heat stress.(a) Phenotype of wheat leaves in different treatment. Four treatments: Control: 20 °C for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: 20 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: 40 °C treatment for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: 40 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment under 20 °C for 24 hrs. (b) Relative leaf water content of wheat leaves under different treatments. The relative water content ratio is shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure a phenotype. (c) Phenotype of wheat flag leaves in different treatment. (d) Chlorophyll level of flag leaves under different treatments. The SPAD value indicating chlorophyll level in the flag leaves are shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure c phenotype. (e) Stomata of wheat seedlings under different treatment in 15.0 kV 10.3 mm × 15.0 k Secondary Electron. (f) Protoplast of wheat second leaf under different concentration coroantine treatment. (g) Root phenotype of wheat seedlings under different treatment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562268&req=5

f1: Coronatine induced physiological phenotype in wheat under heat stress.(a) Phenotype of wheat leaves in different treatment. Four treatments: Control: 20 °C for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: 20 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: 40 °C treatment for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: 40 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment under 20 °C for 24 hrs. (b) Relative leaf water content of wheat leaves under different treatments. The relative water content ratio is shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure a phenotype. (c) Phenotype of wheat flag leaves in different treatment. (d) Chlorophyll level of flag leaves under different treatments. The SPAD value indicating chlorophyll level in the flag leaves are shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure c phenotype. (e) Stomata of wheat seedlings under different treatment in 15.0 kV 10.3 mm × 15.0 k Secondary Electron. (f) Protoplast of wheat second leaf under different concentration coroantine treatment. (g) Root phenotype of wheat seedlings under different treatment.

Mentions: Coronatine preserved the green phenotype of wheat leaves under heat stress (Fig. 1c). The SPAD value indicates chlorophyll level in the flag leaves, coronatine pretreated leaves were 7.89% higher than control plants under heat stress (Fig. 1d). Meanwhile, the protoplast result also showed this phenomenon in cell level, low intercellular coronatine (0.01 μM) could make the chloroplast much greener, while high intercellular coronatine (1 μM) may destroy the cell membrane (Fig. 1f). Additionally, coronatine maintained high relative leaf water content under heat stress conditions (Fig. 1a,b), and reduced the damage of stomata from heat. The stomata under heat stress spited out some compounds and the cell wall/membrane was not integrated (Fig. 1e). Coronatine also stimulated root growth, enhancing uptake of water and nutrition under heat stress (Fig. 1g, Table 1).


Phytotoxin coronatine enhances heat tolerance via maintaining photosynthetic performance in wheat based on Electrophoresis and TOF-MS analysis.

Zhou Y, Zhang M, Li J, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L - Sci Rep (2015)

Coronatine induced physiological phenotype in wheat under heat stress.(a) Phenotype of wheat leaves in different treatment. Four treatments: Control: 20 °C for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: 20 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: 40 °C treatment for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: 40 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment under 20 °C for 24 hrs. (b) Relative leaf water content of wheat leaves under different treatments. The relative water content ratio is shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure a phenotype. (c) Phenotype of wheat flag leaves in different treatment. (d) Chlorophyll level of flag leaves under different treatments. The SPAD value indicating chlorophyll level in the flag leaves are shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure c phenotype. (e) Stomata of wheat seedlings under different treatment in 15.0 kV 10.3 mm × 15.0 k Secondary Electron. (f) Protoplast of wheat second leaf under different concentration coroantine treatment. (g) Root phenotype of wheat seedlings under different treatment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562268&req=5

f1: Coronatine induced physiological phenotype in wheat under heat stress.(a) Phenotype of wheat leaves in different treatment. Four treatments: Control: 20 °C for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR: 20 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment for 24 hrs; Heat: 40 °C treatment for 48 hrs after water pretreatment for 24 hrs; COR + Heat: 40 °C for 48 hrs after coronatine pretreatment under 20 °C for 24 hrs. (b) Relative leaf water content of wheat leaves under different treatments. The relative water content ratio is shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure a phenotype. (c) Phenotype of wheat flag leaves in different treatment. (d) Chlorophyll level of flag leaves under different treatments. The SPAD value indicating chlorophyll level in the flag leaves are shown as mean ± SD from 6 replicates (n = 15 lines/replicate; Bars labeled with different letter are significantly different at P > 0.05 as determined by LSD test) corresponding with figure c phenotype. (e) Stomata of wheat seedlings under different treatment in 15.0 kV 10.3 mm × 15.0 k Secondary Electron. (f) Protoplast of wheat second leaf under different concentration coroantine treatment. (g) Root phenotype of wheat seedlings under different treatment.
Mentions: Coronatine preserved the green phenotype of wheat leaves under heat stress (Fig. 1c). The SPAD value indicates chlorophyll level in the flag leaves, coronatine pretreated leaves were 7.89% higher than control plants under heat stress (Fig. 1d). Meanwhile, the protoplast result also showed this phenomenon in cell level, low intercellular coronatine (0.01 μM) could make the chloroplast much greener, while high intercellular coronatine (1 μM) may destroy the cell membrane (Fig. 1f). Additionally, coronatine maintained high relative leaf water content under heat stress conditions (Fig. 1a,b), and reduced the damage of stomata from heat. The stomata under heat stress spited out some compounds and the cell wall/membrane was not integrated (Fig. 1e). Coronatine also stimulated root growth, enhancing uptake of water and nutrition under heat stress (Fig. 1g, Table 1).

Bottom Line: We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins.We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis.Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Engineering Research Center of Plant Growth Regulator, Ministry of Education, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, No 2 Yuanmingyuan Xi Lu, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China.

ABSTRACT
Coronatine (COR) is a phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Its structure is similar to Jasmonates, which play a number of diverse roles in plant defense. Both have the COI1 plant receptor, so coronatine can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. In addition to the hormone system, coronatine affects plant nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure. In this study, we first examined a typical nitrogen-losing phenotype, and used the polyacrylamide gel approach to demonstrate soluble total protein patterns in a time-course experiment under different temperature conditions. We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins. We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis. Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrated that coronatine enhanced heat tolerance by regulating nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance and reduce yield loss under heat stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus