Limits...
"Put your Hands up in the Air"? The interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions on opponents and teammates.

Furley P, Moll T, Memmert D - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers' anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations.Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes.In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive and Team/Racket Sport Research, German Sport University Cologne Cologne, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present research was to investigate the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions amongst opponents and teammates in a soccer penalty scenario. Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers' anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes. In Experiment 1, observing pride expressions caused opponents to anticipate more negative emotions, cognitions, and lower performance expectancies toward their next performance in comparison with neutral expressions. In contrast, pride expressions led teammates to anticipate more positive emotions (i.e., pride and happiness), cognitions, and performance expectations toward their next performance than neutral expressions (Experiments 2-4). The results are discussed within the emotions as social information (EASI, Van Kleef, 2009) framework by arguing that the social context has to be taken into account when investigating the interpersonal effects of emotion expressions. In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

No MeSH data available.


Single frames of a sample pointlight stimuli used in the study on the left and a picture of the acted behavior on the right. Top: from the left to right: both fists above head, full pride expression, neutral expression; Bottom: from left to right: hands in front of face; head down.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562262&req=5

Figure 2: Single frames of a sample pointlight stimuli used in the study on the left and a picture of the acted behavior on the right. Top: from the left to right: both fists above head, full pride expression, neutral expression; Bottom: from left to right: hands in front of face; head down.

Mentions: We created video footage of penalty takers (Figure 2) using the point-light technique (Johansson, 1973). We chose this method to remove appearance characteristics such as clothing from the display and, more importantly, to examine whether the biological motion information relating to the pride and shame expressions reported in Moll et al. (2010) is sufficient for influencing others. It has been suggested that the accurate inferences drawn from biological motion information may have evolved for fitness reasons in social animals in order to efficiently communicate emotional information with one another (Burgoon, 1996; Blakemore and Decety, 2001; Blake and Shiffrar, 2007; Bente et al., 2010). In support of this, Atkinson et al. (2004) demonstrated that observers could reliably detect emotional states from point-light videos and therefore this approach can be considered a suitable methodology for investigating the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions during penalty shootouts. Further, this approach has successfully been employed in previous research investigating nonverbal behaviors (NVB) during the penalty preparation related to dominance and submissiveness (Furley and Dicks, 2012; Furley et al., 2012a) and anxiety (Furley et al., 2012b). If the effects reported by Moll et al. (2010) were indeed due to the interpersonal effects of pride and shame—being automatically related to high and low status (Shariff and Tracy, 2009)—then the scarce biological motion information should be sufficient in influencing soccer players in the penalty shootout situation.


"Put your Hands up in the Air"? The interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions on opponents and teammates.

Furley P, Moll T, Memmert D - Front Psychol (2015)

Single frames of a sample pointlight stimuli used in the study on the left and a picture of the acted behavior on the right. Top: from the left to right: both fists above head, full pride expression, neutral expression; Bottom: from left to right: hands in front of face; head down.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562262&req=5

Figure 2: Single frames of a sample pointlight stimuli used in the study on the left and a picture of the acted behavior on the right. Top: from the left to right: both fists above head, full pride expression, neutral expression; Bottom: from left to right: hands in front of face; head down.
Mentions: We created video footage of penalty takers (Figure 2) using the point-light technique (Johansson, 1973). We chose this method to remove appearance characteristics such as clothing from the display and, more importantly, to examine whether the biological motion information relating to the pride and shame expressions reported in Moll et al. (2010) is sufficient for influencing others. It has been suggested that the accurate inferences drawn from biological motion information may have evolved for fitness reasons in social animals in order to efficiently communicate emotional information with one another (Burgoon, 1996; Blakemore and Decety, 2001; Blake and Shiffrar, 2007; Bente et al., 2010). In support of this, Atkinson et al. (2004) demonstrated that observers could reliably detect emotional states from point-light videos and therefore this approach can be considered a suitable methodology for investigating the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions during penalty shootouts. Further, this approach has successfully been employed in previous research investigating nonverbal behaviors (NVB) during the penalty preparation related to dominance and submissiveness (Furley and Dicks, 2012; Furley et al., 2012a) and anxiety (Furley et al., 2012b). If the effects reported by Moll et al. (2010) were indeed due to the interpersonal effects of pride and shame—being automatically related to high and low status (Shariff and Tracy, 2009)—then the scarce biological motion information should be sufficient in influencing soccer players in the penalty shootout situation.

Bottom Line: Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers' anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations.Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes.In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Cognitive and Team/Racket Sport Research, German Sport University Cologne Cologne, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present research was to investigate the interpersonal effects of pride and shame expressions amongst opponents and teammates in a soccer penalty scenario. Across a series of experiments using the point-light method, pride and shame expressions exerted strong effects upon observers' anticipated emotions, associated cognitions, and performance expectations. Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in two pilot studies we demonstrated that the created pride and shame point-light stimuli were implicitly associated with status and performance related attributes. In Experiment 1, observing pride expressions caused opponents to anticipate more negative emotions, cognitions, and lower performance expectancies toward their next performance in comparison with neutral expressions. In contrast, pride expressions led teammates to anticipate more positive emotions (i.e., pride and happiness), cognitions, and performance expectations toward their next performance than neutral expressions (Experiments 2-4). The results are discussed within the emotions as social information (EASI, Van Kleef, 2009) framework by arguing that the social context has to be taken into account when investigating the interpersonal effects of emotion expressions. In conclusion, the present research highlights the potential interpersonal influence of the nonverbal expressions of pride and shame in soccer penalty shootouts.

No MeSH data available.