Limits...
Dual response to nest flooding during monsoon in an Indian ant.

Kolay S, Annagiri S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on characterization of nest location, architecture and the response of these ants to different levels of flooding in their natural habitat as well as in the laboratory, we infer that they exhibit a dual response.On the other hand, inundated nests are evacuated and the ants occupy shelters at higher elevations.We conclude that focused studies of the monsoon biology of species that dwell in such climatic conditions may help us appreciate how organisms deal with, and adapt to, extreme seasonal changes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behaviour &Ecology Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741246, India.

ABSTRACT
Flooding causes destruction of shelter and disruption of activity in animals occupying subterranean nests. To ensure their survival organisms have evolved various responses to combat this problem. In this study we examine the response of an Indian ant, Diacamma indicum, to nest flooding during the monsoon season. Based on characterization of nest location, architecture and the response of these ants to different levels of flooding in their natural habitat as well as in the laboratory, we infer that they exhibit a dual response. On the one hand, the challenges presented by monsoon are dealt with by occupying shallow nests and modifying the entrance with decorations and soil mounds. On the other hand, inundated nests are evacuated and the ants occupy shelters at higher elevations. We conclude that focused studies of the monsoon biology of species that dwell in such climatic conditions may help us appreciate how organisms deal with, and adapt to, extreme seasonal changes.

No MeSH data available.


Experimental setup used to evaluate response of Diacamma indicum colonies to nest flooding. Three identical boxes lined with plaster of paris and provided with an artificial nest were placed at ground level (A) and at elevations of 61 cm (B) and 122 cm (C) from the ground. A and C were connected to B by 91 cm bridges. The old nest with the colony was placed in B. The figures next to boxes A and C indicate the number of colonies that relocated to the upper and lower nests in control and water treatment experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562246&req=5

f4: Experimental setup used to evaluate response of Diacamma indicum colonies to nest flooding. Three identical boxes lined with plaster of paris and provided with an artificial nest were placed at ground level (A) and at elevations of 61 cm (B) and 122 cm (C) from the ground. A and C were connected to B by 91 cm bridges. The old nest with the colony was placed in B. The figures next to boxes A and C indicate the number of colonies that relocated to the upper and lower nests in control and water treatment experiments.

Mentions: The response of D. indicum to high levels of water stress was examined by placing the colony at a height of 61 cm from ground level (B in Fig. 4) and providing two nests of similar quality at heights of 0 cm and 122 cm (A and C respectively in Fig. 4). Each colony was subjected to a control treatment and water treatment in random order. The colonies had equal probabilities of relocating to either nest on being subjected to stress. During the exploration period, both the new nests were discovered by scouts in 31 out of the total 32 relocations. In the control experiments all the colonies moved out of the old nest and relocated to a new shelter whereas all except one colony relocated out of the flooded old nest following water treatment. Only 1 colony remained split at the end of the observation period of 6 hrs after the removal of the nest cover in the control experiments. In the water treatment experiments, 1 colony remained in the old flooded nest, 2 colonies remained clustered in the bridge just outside the box containing the old nest and 2 remained split at the end of the observation period. As these colonies had not made a final choice of nesting site, they were omitted from the subsequent analysis. In the control experiments 8 colonies moved to the upper box whereas 7 colonies relocated to the lower box (Goodness of fit test, χ2 = 0.07, df = 1, p = 0.8). The median time taken to complete the relocations was 210 mins (120–170 mins). In the water treatment experiments 8 moved to the upper box placed at an elevation of 122 cm from the ground while 3 relocated to the box placed at ground level (Goodness of fit test, χ2 = 2.3, df = 1, p = 0.1). The median time taken by these colonies to relocate to the new nest was 210 mins (180–270 mins). In both cases qualitative observations indicate that majority of the colony members were tandem run to the new nests.


Dual response to nest flooding during monsoon in an Indian ant.

Kolay S, Annagiri S - Sci Rep (2015)

Experimental setup used to evaluate response of Diacamma indicum colonies to nest flooding. Three identical boxes lined with plaster of paris and provided with an artificial nest were placed at ground level (A) and at elevations of 61 cm (B) and 122 cm (C) from the ground. A and C were connected to B by 91 cm bridges. The old nest with the colony was placed in B. The figures next to boxes A and C indicate the number of colonies that relocated to the upper and lower nests in control and water treatment experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562246&req=5

f4: Experimental setup used to evaluate response of Diacamma indicum colonies to nest flooding. Three identical boxes lined with plaster of paris and provided with an artificial nest were placed at ground level (A) and at elevations of 61 cm (B) and 122 cm (C) from the ground. A and C were connected to B by 91 cm bridges. The old nest with the colony was placed in B. The figures next to boxes A and C indicate the number of colonies that relocated to the upper and lower nests in control and water treatment experiments.
Mentions: The response of D. indicum to high levels of water stress was examined by placing the colony at a height of 61 cm from ground level (B in Fig. 4) and providing two nests of similar quality at heights of 0 cm and 122 cm (A and C respectively in Fig. 4). Each colony was subjected to a control treatment and water treatment in random order. The colonies had equal probabilities of relocating to either nest on being subjected to stress. During the exploration period, both the new nests were discovered by scouts in 31 out of the total 32 relocations. In the control experiments all the colonies moved out of the old nest and relocated to a new shelter whereas all except one colony relocated out of the flooded old nest following water treatment. Only 1 colony remained split at the end of the observation period of 6 hrs after the removal of the nest cover in the control experiments. In the water treatment experiments, 1 colony remained in the old flooded nest, 2 colonies remained clustered in the bridge just outside the box containing the old nest and 2 remained split at the end of the observation period. As these colonies had not made a final choice of nesting site, they were omitted from the subsequent analysis. In the control experiments 8 colonies moved to the upper box whereas 7 colonies relocated to the lower box (Goodness of fit test, χ2 = 0.07, df = 1, p = 0.8). The median time taken to complete the relocations was 210 mins (120–170 mins). In the water treatment experiments 8 moved to the upper box placed at an elevation of 122 cm from the ground while 3 relocated to the box placed at ground level (Goodness of fit test, χ2 = 2.3, df = 1, p = 0.1). The median time taken by these colonies to relocate to the new nest was 210 mins (180–270 mins). In both cases qualitative observations indicate that majority of the colony members were tandem run to the new nests.

Bottom Line: Based on characterization of nest location, architecture and the response of these ants to different levels of flooding in their natural habitat as well as in the laboratory, we infer that they exhibit a dual response.On the other hand, inundated nests are evacuated and the ants occupy shelters at higher elevations.We conclude that focused studies of the monsoon biology of species that dwell in such climatic conditions may help us appreciate how organisms deal with, and adapt to, extreme seasonal changes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Behaviour &Ecology Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741246, India.

ABSTRACT
Flooding causes destruction of shelter and disruption of activity in animals occupying subterranean nests. To ensure their survival organisms have evolved various responses to combat this problem. In this study we examine the response of an Indian ant, Diacamma indicum, to nest flooding during the monsoon season. Based on characterization of nest location, architecture and the response of these ants to different levels of flooding in their natural habitat as well as in the laboratory, we infer that they exhibit a dual response. On the one hand, the challenges presented by monsoon are dealt with by occupying shallow nests and modifying the entrance with decorations and soil mounds. On the other hand, inundated nests are evacuated and the ants occupy shelters at higher elevations. We conclude that focused studies of the monsoon biology of species that dwell in such climatic conditions may help us appreciate how organisms deal with, and adapt to, extreme seasonal changes.

No MeSH data available.