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Neural regions discriminating contextual information as conveyed through the learned preferences of others.

Lee SM, McCarthy G - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS).No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS.Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human brain consists of a network of regions that are engaged when one observes the movements of others. Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). This implies that observers use contextual information to form expectations about an agent's goal and subsequent movements. The current study sought to identify regions that support the formation of these context-dependent expectations, with the pSTS being one candidate, given the consistent contextual modulation of its activity. We presented participants with fictitious individuals who had emotion-dependent food preferences, and instructed participants to indicate which food they expected each individual to choose based on the individual's current emotional state. Each individual's preference and emotional state therefore created a context that informed the observer's expectation of the individual's choice. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to assess if these different contexts could be discriminated in the pSTS and elsewhere in the brain. No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS. Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval. All together, these regions possibly support the formation of context-dependent expectations of an agent's goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Confusion matrices from each significant cluster from the four-way classification. Each cell reflects the group-level proportion of each type of trial (in rows) that were classified as each of the four types of trials (in columns). The cells in each row therefore add up to 100 (or approximately 100 due to rounding). Cells are colored according to a gradient ranging from the lowest (gray) to highest numbers (red). Successful classification of all four categories is reflected through strong red colors in the diagonal from top left to bottom right. The first five regions (i.e., L IPL, R IPS, amPFC, L MTG, and L ATL) had confusion matrices in which the diagonal elements had the highest numerical value in each row. H1: John-happy, H2: Alex-happy, S1: John-sad, S2: Alex-sad.
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Figure 3: Confusion matrices from each significant cluster from the four-way classification. Each cell reflects the group-level proportion of each type of trial (in rows) that were classified as each of the four types of trials (in columns). The cells in each row therefore add up to 100 (or approximately 100 due to rounding). Cells are colored according to a gradient ranging from the lowest (gray) to highest numbers (red). Successful classification of all four categories is reflected through strong red colors in the diagonal from top left to bottom right. The first five regions (i.e., L IPL, R IPS, amPFC, L MTG, and L ATL) had confusion matrices in which the diagonal elements had the highest numerical value in each row. H1: John-happy, H2: Alex-happy, S1: John-sad, S2: Alex-sad.

Mentions: Regions that successfully discriminated the “Preference” trials in the whole-brain searchlight four-way classification analysis included the left inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (L IPL/IPS) spanning from the angular gyrus to the intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, right intraparietal sulcus (R IPS), anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL) at the anterior MTG, and right inferior frontal sulcus (R IFS; Figure 2, in red and orange; coordinates of peaks are reported in Table 1). Of these regions, the L IPL/IPS, R IPS, amPFC, L MTG, and L ATL (Figure 2, in red) yielded confusion matrices where the diagonal elements had the highest numerical value in each row (Figure 3). No regions successfully discriminated the “No Preference” trials in the whole-brain searchlight two-way classification analysis.


Neural regions discriminating contextual information as conveyed through the learned preferences of others.

Lee SM, McCarthy G - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Confusion matrices from each significant cluster from the four-way classification. Each cell reflects the group-level proportion of each type of trial (in rows) that were classified as each of the four types of trials (in columns). The cells in each row therefore add up to 100 (or approximately 100 due to rounding). Cells are colored according to a gradient ranging from the lowest (gray) to highest numbers (red). Successful classification of all four categories is reflected through strong red colors in the diagonal from top left to bottom right. The first five regions (i.e., L IPL, R IPS, amPFC, L MTG, and L ATL) had confusion matrices in which the diagonal elements had the highest numerical value in each row. H1: John-happy, H2: Alex-happy, S1: John-sad, S2: Alex-sad.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 3: Confusion matrices from each significant cluster from the four-way classification. Each cell reflects the group-level proportion of each type of trial (in rows) that were classified as each of the four types of trials (in columns). The cells in each row therefore add up to 100 (or approximately 100 due to rounding). Cells are colored according to a gradient ranging from the lowest (gray) to highest numbers (red). Successful classification of all four categories is reflected through strong red colors in the diagonal from top left to bottom right. The first five regions (i.e., L IPL, R IPS, amPFC, L MTG, and L ATL) had confusion matrices in which the diagonal elements had the highest numerical value in each row. H1: John-happy, H2: Alex-happy, S1: John-sad, S2: Alex-sad.
Mentions: Regions that successfully discriminated the “Preference” trials in the whole-brain searchlight four-way classification analysis included the left inferior parietal lobule/intraparietal sulcus (L IPL/IPS) spanning from the angular gyrus to the intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, right intraparietal sulcus (R IPS), anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL) at the anterior MTG, and right inferior frontal sulcus (R IFS; Figure 2, in red and orange; coordinates of peaks are reported in Table 1). Of these regions, the L IPL/IPS, R IPS, amPFC, L MTG, and L ATL (Figure 2, in red) yielded confusion matrices where the diagonal elements had the highest numerical value in each row (Figure 3). No regions successfully discriminated the “No Preference” trials in the whole-brain searchlight two-way classification analysis.

Bottom Line: Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS).No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS.Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human brain consists of a network of regions that are engaged when one observes the movements of others. Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). This implies that observers use contextual information to form expectations about an agent's goal and subsequent movements. The current study sought to identify regions that support the formation of these context-dependent expectations, with the pSTS being one candidate, given the consistent contextual modulation of its activity. We presented participants with fictitious individuals who had emotion-dependent food preferences, and instructed participants to indicate which food they expected each individual to choose based on the individual's current emotional state. Each individual's preference and emotional state therefore created a context that informed the observer's expectation of the individual's choice. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to assess if these different contexts could be discriminated in the pSTS and elsewhere in the brain. No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS. Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval. All together, these regions possibly support the formation of context-dependent expectations of an agent's goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus