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Neural regions discriminating contextual information as conveyed through the learned preferences of others.

Lee SM, McCarthy G - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS).No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS.Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human brain consists of a network of regions that are engaged when one observes the movements of others. Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). This implies that observers use contextual information to form expectations about an agent's goal and subsequent movements. The current study sought to identify regions that support the formation of these context-dependent expectations, with the pSTS being one candidate, given the consistent contextual modulation of its activity. We presented participants with fictitious individuals who had emotion-dependent food preferences, and instructed participants to indicate which food they expected each individual to choose based on the individual's current emotional state. Each individual's preference and emotional state therefore created a context that informed the observer's expectation of the individual's choice. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to assess if these different contexts could be discriminated in the pSTS and elsewhere in the brain. No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS. Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval. All together, these regions possibly support the formation of context-dependent expectations of an agent's goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic illustration of the experimental paradigm. During each trial, the neutral face picture of one of the three white male individuals was displayed. As the NimStim faces used cannot be published, sample faces generated with FaceGen (Singular Inversions, Toronto, ON, Canada) are shown here instead. Pictures of a meat dish and a vegetable dish were presented on the left and right of the face. The word “happy” or “sad” was displayed above the face to indicate the individual’s current emotional state. Participant’s task was to indicate, using the left and right button presses, which dish the individual would choose based on the individual’s emotional state. Trials were presented for 2 s and were separated by a 4–10 s jittered interval during which a fixation cross was displayed (not shown). The red circles indicate each individual’s emotion-dependent food preferences and were not displayed during the task.
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Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the experimental paradigm. During each trial, the neutral face picture of one of the three white male individuals was displayed. As the NimStim faces used cannot be published, sample faces generated with FaceGen (Singular Inversions, Toronto, ON, Canada) are shown here instead. Pictures of a meat dish and a vegetable dish were presented on the left and right of the face. The word “happy” or “sad” was displayed above the face to indicate the individual’s current emotional state. Participant’s task was to indicate, using the left and right button presses, which dish the individual would choose based on the individual’s emotional state. Trials were presented for 2 s and were separated by a 4–10 s jittered interval during which a fixation cross was displayed (not shown). The red circles indicate each individual’s emotion-dependent food preferences and were not displayed during the task.

Mentions: The stimuli were presented using an event-related design. In each trial, one of the three faces was presented along with a text cue above the face indicating the person’s emotional state (“happy” or “sad”), and pictures of a meat dish and a vegetable dish on the left and right of the face (Figure 1). Each trial was presented for 2 s and trials were separated by a 4–10 s jittered fixation interval. Each run consisted of six trials per condition (i.e., each face paired with each emotion) to give a total of 36 trials per run, and a run duration of 5 min. The program “optseq2”1 was used to generate the optimal sequence and separation of trials for maximal statistical efficiency of rapid-presentation event-related hemodynamic response estimation for each run (Dale, 1999). The position of the meat and vegetable dishes on the left and right of the face was counterbalanced across trials within each condition and each run. Ten runs were presented.


Neural regions discriminating contextual information as conveyed through the learned preferences of others.

Lee SM, McCarthy G - Front Hum Neurosci (2015)

Schematic illustration of the experimental paradigm. During each trial, the neutral face picture of one of the three white male individuals was displayed. As the NimStim faces used cannot be published, sample faces generated with FaceGen (Singular Inversions, Toronto, ON, Canada) are shown here instead. Pictures of a meat dish and a vegetable dish were presented on the left and right of the face. The word “happy” or “sad” was displayed above the face to indicate the individual’s current emotional state. Participant’s task was to indicate, using the left and right button presses, which dish the individual would choose based on the individual’s emotional state. Trials were presented for 2 s and were separated by a 4–10 s jittered interval during which a fixation cross was displayed (not shown). The red circles indicate each individual’s emotion-dependent food preferences and were not displayed during the task.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562242&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the experimental paradigm. During each trial, the neutral face picture of one of the three white male individuals was displayed. As the NimStim faces used cannot be published, sample faces generated with FaceGen (Singular Inversions, Toronto, ON, Canada) are shown here instead. Pictures of a meat dish and a vegetable dish were presented on the left and right of the face. The word “happy” or “sad” was displayed above the face to indicate the individual’s current emotional state. Participant’s task was to indicate, using the left and right button presses, which dish the individual would choose based on the individual’s emotional state. Trials were presented for 2 s and were separated by a 4–10 s jittered interval during which a fixation cross was displayed (not shown). The red circles indicate each individual’s emotion-dependent food preferences and were not displayed during the task.
Mentions: The stimuli were presented using an event-related design. In each trial, one of the three faces was presented along with a text cue above the face indicating the person’s emotional state (“happy” or “sad”), and pictures of a meat dish and a vegetable dish on the left and right of the face (Figure 1). Each trial was presented for 2 s and trials were separated by a 4–10 s jittered fixation interval. Each run consisted of six trials per condition (i.e., each face paired with each emotion) to give a total of 36 trials per run, and a run duration of 5 min. The program “optseq2”1 was used to generate the optimal sequence and separation of trials for maximal statistical efficiency of rapid-presentation event-related hemodynamic response estimation for each run (Dale, 1999). The position of the meat and vegetable dishes on the left and right of the face was counterbalanced across trials within each condition and each run. Ten runs were presented.

Bottom Line: Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS).No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS.Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Yale University New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human brain consists of a network of regions that are engaged when one observes the movements of others. Observing unexpected movements, as defined by the context, often elicits greater activity, particularly in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). This implies that observers use contextual information to form expectations about an agent's goal and subsequent movements. The current study sought to identify regions that support the formation of these context-dependent expectations, with the pSTS being one candidate, given the consistent contextual modulation of its activity. We presented participants with fictitious individuals who had emotion-dependent food preferences, and instructed participants to indicate which food they expected each individual to choose based on the individual's current emotional state. Each individual's preference and emotional state therefore created a context that informed the observer's expectation of the individual's choice. Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to assess if these different contexts could be discriminated in the pSTS and elsewhere in the brain. No evidence for context discrimination was found in the pSTS. Context discrimination was found instead a network of other brain regions including the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC), bilateral parietal cortex, left middle temporal gyrus (L MTG) and left anterior temporal lobe (L ATL), which have been previously associated with context processing, and semantic and memory retrieval. All together, these regions possibly support the formation of context-dependent expectations of an agent's goal.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus