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Extracellular Vesicles: Role in Inflammatory Responses and Potential Uses in Vaccination in Cancer and Infectious Diseases.

Campos JH, Soares RP, Ribeiro K, Andrade AC, Batista WL, Torrecilhas AC - J Immunol Res (2015)

Bottom Line: Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events.Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications.Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Imunologia Celular e Bioquímica de Fungos e Protozoários, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Diadema, 09913-030 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events. Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

EVs released from all cell types. These particles are involved in physiologic and pathologic processes: (a) intercellular communication and molecular trafficking delivering regulatory signal molecules and (b) and (c) parasite-host interactions and immunomodulation in pathologic conditions; (d) drug resistance, cancer progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis are some functions of exosomes in cancer [1].
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fig2: EVs released from all cell types. These particles are involved in physiologic and pathologic processes: (a) intercellular communication and molecular trafficking delivering regulatory signal molecules and (b) and (c) parasite-host interactions and immunomodulation in pathologic conditions; (d) drug resistance, cancer progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis are some functions of exosomes in cancer [1].

Mentions: The vesicles derived from mammalian cells contain a family of integral membrane proteins that cross four times the lipid bilayer and are called tetraspanins [11], including the surface markers of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells such as CD37, CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. EVs also contain molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC classes I and II) (http://www.exocarta.org/) [11, 12]. EVs derived from normal cells cause either suppression or activation of the immune response by modulating the production of inflammatory mediators. For example, T-cells and monocytes secrete vesicles that contain FasL on the surface that modulate apoptosis of the other cells (Figure 2) [13]. Vesicles isolated from monocytes deliver proinflammatory mediators that activate endothelial cells [14, 15]. Tumor cells secrete EVs that are able to downregulate the immune system, allowing the escape from the immune system. Furthermore, these vesicles can control tumor development and growth, by decreasing the expression and release of IL-2 reducing the proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells [14, 15]. Therefore, EVs are potential biomarkers and antigens for vaccination, with potential uses for early diagnostic, and therapeutic applications in several diseases.


Extracellular Vesicles: Role in Inflammatory Responses and Potential Uses in Vaccination in Cancer and Infectious Diseases.

Campos JH, Soares RP, Ribeiro K, Andrade AC, Batista WL, Torrecilhas AC - J Immunol Res (2015)

EVs released from all cell types. These particles are involved in physiologic and pathologic processes: (a) intercellular communication and molecular trafficking delivering regulatory signal molecules and (b) and (c) parasite-host interactions and immunomodulation in pathologic conditions; (d) drug resistance, cancer progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis are some functions of exosomes in cancer [1].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562184&req=5

fig2: EVs released from all cell types. These particles are involved in physiologic and pathologic processes: (a) intercellular communication and molecular trafficking delivering regulatory signal molecules and (b) and (c) parasite-host interactions and immunomodulation in pathologic conditions; (d) drug resistance, cancer progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis are some functions of exosomes in cancer [1].
Mentions: The vesicles derived from mammalian cells contain a family of integral membrane proteins that cross four times the lipid bilayer and are called tetraspanins [11], including the surface markers of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells such as CD37, CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, and CD82. EVs also contain molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC classes I and II) (http://www.exocarta.org/) [11, 12]. EVs derived from normal cells cause either suppression or activation of the immune response by modulating the production of inflammatory mediators. For example, T-cells and monocytes secrete vesicles that contain FasL on the surface that modulate apoptosis of the other cells (Figure 2) [13]. Vesicles isolated from monocytes deliver proinflammatory mediators that activate endothelial cells [14, 15]. Tumor cells secrete EVs that are able to downregulate the immune system, allowing the escape from the immune system. Furthermore, these vesicles can control tumor development and growth, by decreasing the expression and release of IL-2 reducing the proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells [14, 15]. Therefore, EVs are potential biomarkers and antigens for vaccination, with potential uses for early diagnostic, and therapeutic applications in several diseases.

Bottom Line: Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events.Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications.Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratório de Imunologia Celular e Bioquímica de Fungos e Protozoários, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Diadema, 09913-030 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Almost all cells and organisms release membrane structures containing proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which have a wide range of functions concerning intercellular communication and signaling events. Recently, the characterization and understanding of their biological role have become a main research area due to their potential role in vaccination, as biomarkers antigens, early diagnostic tools, and therapeutic applications. Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus