Limits...
First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011.

Goitom B, Oppenheimer C, Hammond JO, Grandin R, Barnie T, Donovan A, Ogubazghi G, Yohannes E, Kibrom G, Kendall JM, Carn SA, Fee D, Sealing C, Keir D, Ayele A, Blundy J, Hamlyn J, Wright T, Berhe S - Bull Volcanol (2015)

Bottom Line: It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar.The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight.The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Queens Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ UK ; Department of Earth Sciences, Eritrea Institute of Technology, PO Box 12676, Asmara, Eritrea.

ABSTRACT

We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of regional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative rarity of recorded historical eruptions in the region and of caldera systems in general, for the prodigious quantity of SO2 emitted into the atmosphere and the significant human impacts that ensued notwithstanding the low population density of the Afar region. It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar. The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight. The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor. Substantial infrasound was recorded at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the vent, beginning at the onset of the eruption and continuing for weeks. Analysis of ground deformation suggests the eruption was fed by a shallow, NW-SE-trending dike, which is consistent with field and satellite observations of vent distributions. Despite lack of prior planning and preparedness for volcanic events in the country, rapid coordination of the emergency response mitigated the human costs of the eruption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Seismic stations used in our study (inverted blue triangles and red diamonds indicate temporary and permanent stations, respectively) and regional seismicity (red dots) from the USGS catalogue for the period 1960–2011. The green triangle locates Nabro. Inset map shows the volcanoes in the Bidu Volcanic Complex (coverage of the red box in the larger map)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562108&req=5

Fig1: Seismic stations used in our study (inverted blue triangles and red diamonds indicate temporary and permanent stations, respectively) and regional seismicity (red dots) from the USGS catalogue for the period 1960–2011. The green triangle locates Nabro. Inset map shows the volcanoes in the Bidu Volcanic Complex (coverage of the red box in the larger map)

Mentions: Nabro volcano, some 25 km southwest from Dubbi, is part of a much larger massif referred to as the Bidu Volcanic Complex (Wiart and Oppenheimer 2005; Fig. 1), which is comprised of two calderas (Nabro and, just across the international border in Ethiopia, Mallahle). Nabro’s 2011 eruption began with very little warning—at the time, there were no seismic or other monitoring networks operating in Eritrea. As we show here, seismometers in Ethiopia, Yemen and Djibouti did record seismicity associated with the volcano, but they did not provide information of operational value at the time of the eruption. However, felt earthquakes on the volcano, occurring over several hours before the eruption, did prompt a rapid evacuation of settlements, notably those within Nabro’s caldera. This likely saved many lives. Nevertheless, seven people were killed and three others injured during the eruption. About 12,000 people were ultimately displaced and cared for in temporary camps in the region (Solomon 2012).Fig. 1


First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011.

Goitom B, Oppenheimer C, Hammond JO, Grandin R, Barnie T, Donovan A, Ogubazghi G, Yohannes E, Kibrom G, Kendall JM, Carn SA, Fee D, Sealing C, Keir D, Ayele A, Blundy J, Hamlyn J, Wright T, Berhe S - Bull Volcanol (2015)

Seismic stations used in our study (inverted blue triangles and red diamonds indicate temporary and permanent stations, respectively) and regional seismicity (red dots) from the USGS catalogue for the period 1960–2011. The green triangle locates Nabro. Inset map shows the volcanoes in the Bidu Volcanic Complex (coverage of the red box in the larger map)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562108&req=5

Fig1: Seismic stations used in our study (inverted blue triangles and red diamonds indicate temporary and permanent stations, respectively) and regional seismicity (red dots) from the USGS catalogue for the period 1960–2011. The green triangle locates Nabro. Inset map shows the volcanoes in the Bidu Volcanic Complex (coverage of the red box in the larger map)
Mentions: Nabro volcano, some 25 km southwest from Dubbi, is part of a much larger massif referred to as the Bidu Volcanic Complex (Wiart and Oppenheimer 2005; Fig. 1), which is comprised of two calderas (Nabro and, just across the international border in Ethiopia, Mallahle). Nabro’s 2011 eruption began with very little warning—at the time, there were no seismic or other monitoring networks operating in Eritrea. As we show here, seismometers in Ethiopia, Yemen and Djibouti did record seismicity associated with the volcano, but they did not provide information of operational value at the time of the eruption. However, felt earthquakes on the volcano, occurring over several hours before the eruption, did prompt a rapid evacuation of settlements, notably those within Nabro’s caldera. This likely saved many lives. Nevertheless, seven people were killed and three others injured during the eruption. About 12,000 people were ultimately displaced and cared for in temporary camps in the region (Solomon 2012).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar.The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight.The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Queens Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ UK ; Department of Earth Sciences, Eritrea Institute of Technology, PO Box 12676, Asmara, Eritrea.

ABSTRACT

We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of regional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative rarity of recorded historical eruptions in the region and of caldera systems in general, for the prodigious quantity of SO2 emitted into the atmosphere and the significant human impacts that ensued notwithstanding the low population density of the Afar region. It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar. The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight. The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor. Substantial infrasound was recorded at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the vent, beginning at the onset of the eruption and continuing for weeks. Analysis of ground deformation suggests the eruption was fed by a shallow, NW-SE-trending dike, which is consistent with field and satellite observations of vent distributions. Despite lack of prior planning and preparedness for volcanic events in the country, rapid coordination of the emergency response mitigated the human costs of the eruption.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus