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Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders.

De-la-Iglesia M, Olivar JS - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Bottom Line: The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence.The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide.The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Educación, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus María Zambrano, Plaza Alto de los Leones 1, 40005 Segovia, Spain ; Laboratoire LPPS, EA 4057, 92100 Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5 [1, pages 160–165].
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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figbox1: Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5 [1, pages 160–165].

Mentions: (4) With respect to the difficulties in evaluating the indicators for detection of depression in individuals with HFASD, it is hard to define indicators and criteria for a differential diagnosis of mood disorders (see Box 1), due to the overlap between the symptoms of HFASD and depression [107]. Another difficulty is the characteristics themselves of individuals with ASD, such as alterations in verbal and nonverbal communication, which can affect how the person expresses her/his depressive symptoms, especially when using self-assessment. For that reason, it is essential to establish adequately both the criteria on which the assessment techniques employed are based [126–128] and the informants (in most studies, the individuals with HFASD themselves or their relatives).


Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders.

De-la-Iglesia M, Olivar JS - ScientificWorldJournal (2015)

Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5 [1, pages 160–165].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562099&req=5

figbox1: Diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in the DSM-5 [1, pages 160–165].
Mentions: (4) With respect to the difficulties in evaluating the indicators for detection of depression in individuals with HFASD, it is hard to define indicators and criteria for a differential diagnosis of mood disorders (see Box 1), due to the overlap between the symptoms of HFASD and depression [107]. Another difficulty is the characteristics themselves of individuals with ASD, such as alterations in verbal and nonverbal communication, which can affect how the person expresses her/his depressive symptoms, especially when using self-assessment. For that reason, it is essential to establish adequately both the criteria on which the assessment techniques employed are based [126–128] and the informants (in most studies, the individuals with HFASD themselves or their relatives).

Bottom Line: The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence.The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide.The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Psicología, Facultad de Educación, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus María Zambrano, Plaza Alto de los Leones 1, 40005 Segovia, Spain ; Laboratoire LPPS, EA 4057, 92100 Paris, France.

ABSTRACT
The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus