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Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

Kim DU, Han JW, Jung SJ, Lee SH, Cha R, Chang BS, Soh KS - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS.Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing.These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nano Primo Research Center, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea ; College of Physical Education, The University of Suwon, Hwaseong 445-743, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and toluidine blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels in skin (thick arrows). (b) Right axillary node which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed through the lymph duct. (c) Right inguinal node into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the right lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel, and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Left axillary node stained with toluidine blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Left inguinal node into which toluidine blue had been injected. (h) Combined images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which toluidine blue flowed. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) and its surrounding tissue were stained blue, but the PVS was not visible. More details are presented in Figure 4.
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fig2: Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and toluidine blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels in skin (thick arrows). (b) Right axillary node which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed through the lymph duct. (c) Right inguinal node into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the right lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel, and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Left axillary node stained with toluidine blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Left inguinal node into which toluidine blue had been injected. (h) Combined images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which toluidine blue flowed. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) and its surrounding tissue were stained blue, but the PVS was not visible. More details are presented in Figure 4.

Mentions: Compared with Alcian blue and Trypan blue, the dye toluidine blue showed a completely different behavior, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2(a) is the same illustration of the rat lymph in skin, and the panels from Figures 2(b)to 2(e) are for the right axillary node and the right inguinal node and present a mosaic of images of the lymph duct, along with one magnified image showing the primo vessel in the cleared lymph duct, respectively. Alcian blue showed no differences in its effectiveness in comparison with Trypan blue and toluidine blue. The results with toluidine blue are depicted in Figures 2(f)to 2(i). The left axillary and inguinal nodes were deeply colored due to toluidine blue (Figures 2(f) and 2(g)). The magnified images in Figures 2(h) and 2(i) show that the L-PVS was not stained, but the lymph duct was stained at randomly distributed spots in its wall; furthermore, the dye leaked out to the surrounding tissue.


Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

Kim DU, Han JW, Jung SJ, Lee SH, Cha R, Chang BS, Soh KS - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and toluidine blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels in skin (thick arrows). (b) Right axillary node which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed through the lymph duct. (c) Right inguinal node into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the right lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel, and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Left axillary node stained with toluidine blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Left inguinal node into which toluidine blue had been injected. (h) Combined images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which toluidine blue flowed. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) and its surrounding tissue were stained blue, but the PVS was not visible. More details are presented in Figure 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562098&req=5

fig2: Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and toluidine blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels in skin (thick arrows). (b) Right axillary node which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed through the lymph duct. (c) Right inguinal node into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the right lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel, and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Left axillary node stained with toluidine blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Left inguinal node into which toluidine blue had been injected. (h) Combined images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which toluidine blue flowed. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) and its surrounding tissue were stained blue, but the PVS was not visible. More details are presented in Figure 4.
Mentions: Compared with Alcian blue and Trypan blue, the dye toluidine blue showed a completely different behavior, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2(a) is the same illustration of the rat lymph in skin, and the panels from Figures 2(b)to 2(e) are for the right axillary node and the right inguinal node and present a mosaic of images of the lymph duct, along with one magnified image showing the primo vessel in the cleared lymph duct, respectively. Alcian blue showed no differences in its effectiveness in comparison with Trypan blue and toluidine blue. The results with toluidine blue are depicted in Figures 2(f)to 2(i). The left axillary and inguinal nodes were deeply colored due to toluidine blue (Figures 2(f) and 2(g)). The magnified images in Figures 2(h) and 2(i) show that the L-PVS was not stained, but the lymph duct was stained at randomly distributed spots in its wall; furthermore, the dye leaked out to the surrounding tissue.

Bottom Line: We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS.Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing.These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nano Primo Research Center, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea ; College of Physical Education, The University of Suwon, Hwaseong 445-743, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus