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Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

Kim DU, Han JW, Jung SJ, Lee SH, Cha R, Chang BS, Soh KS - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS.Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing.These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nano Primo Research Center, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea ; College of Physical Education, The University of Suwon, Hwaseong 445-743, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and Trypan blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels (thick arrows) in skin. (b) Left axillary node (open arrow) which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed in the lymph duct. (c) Left inguinal node (open arrow) into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the left lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel (arrow), and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Right axillary node (open arrow) weakly stained by Trypan blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Right inguinal node (open arrow) into which Trypan blue had been injected. (h) Mosaic images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which Trypan blue flowed. The epigastric blood vessel is indicated with thick arrows. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) was washed clean, and the PVS was not stained. More details are presented in Figure 3.
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fig1: Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and Trypan blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels (thick arrows) in skin. (b) Left axillary node (open arrow) which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed in the lymph duct. (c) Left inguinal node (open arrow) into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the left lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel (arrow), and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Right axillary node (open arrow) weakly stained by Trypan blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Right inguinal node (open arrow) into which Trypan blue had been injected. (h) Mosaic images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which Trypan blue flowed. The epigastric blood vessel is indicated with thick arrows. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) was washed clean, and the PVS was not stained. More details are presented in Figure 3.

Mentions: The position of the relevant lymph duct in the skin from the inguinal node to the axillary node along the prominent epigastric blood vessel is illustrated in Figure 1(a). As in a previous work with Alcian blue [8], the PVS was observed in this skin lymph duct. In Figure 1(b), the left axillary node was blue due to the Alcian blue which had been injected into the left inguinal node (Figure 1(c)) and had arrived via the lymph duct. A mosaic of the images capturing the whole lymph duct (Figure 1(d)) shows the primo vessel, where one part (Figure 1(e)) was magnified to demonstrate that the primo vessel was stained well by Alcian blue inside the lymph vessel. In comparison, the right axillary node (Figure 1(f)) became weakly blue due to the Trypan blue that had been injected into the right inguinal node (Figure 1(g)) and had flowed via the lymph duct (Figure 1(h)). The magnified mosaic image of the lymph duct (Figure 1(i)) showed that the primo vessel was not stained at all. This showed that Trypan blue in this injection method was not effective for L-PVS visualization.


Comparison of Alcian Blue, Trypan Blue, and Toluidine Blue for Visualization of the Primo Vascular System Floating in Lymph Ducts.

Kim DU, Han JW, Jung SJ, Lee SH, Cha R, Chang BS, Soh KS - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and Trypan blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels (thick arrows) in skin. (b) Left axillary node (open arrow) which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed in the lymph duct. (c) Left inguinal node (open arrow) into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the left lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel (arrow), and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Right axillary node (open arrow) weakly stained by Trypan blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Right inguinal node (open arrow) into which Trypan blue had been injected. (h) Mosaic images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which Trypan blue flowed. The epigastric blood vessel is indicated with thick arrows. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) was washed clean, and the PVS was not stained. More details are presented in Figure 3.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig1: Stereomicroscopic images of lymph ducts in which Alcian blue and Trypan blue had been injected. (a) Illustration of the left and the right lymph ducts along the epigastric blood vessels (thick arrows) in skin. (b) Left axillary node (open arrow) which became blue due to the Alcian blue that flowed in the lymph duct. (c) Left inguinal node (open arrow) into which Alcian blue had been injected. (d) Mosaic of images of the left lymph duct along the epigastric blood vessel (thick arrows). (e) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (d). The blue threadlike structure was the primo vessel (arrow), and it was floating in the lymph duct (double arrows). (f) Right axillary node (open arrow) weakly stained by Trypan blue that flowed from the inguinal node through the lymph duct. (g) Right inguinal node (open arrow) into which Trypan blue had been injected. (h) Mosaic images of the right lymph duct from the inguinal node to the axillary node in which Trypan blue flowed. The epigastric blood vessel is indicated with thick arrows. (i) Magnified image of the rectangular area in (h). The lymph duct (double arrows) was washed clean, and the PVS was not stained. More details are presented in Figure 3.
Mentions: The position of the relevant lymph duct in the skin from the inguinal node to the axillary node along the prominent epigastric blood vessel is illustrated in Figure 1(a). As in a previous work with Alcian blue [8], the PVS was observed in this skin lymph duct. In Figure 1(b), the left axillary node was blue due to the Alcian blue which had been injected into the left inguinal node (Figure 1(c)) and had arrived via the lymph duct. A mosaic of the images capturing the whole lymph duct (Figure 1(d)) shows the primo vessel, where one part (Figure 1(e)) was magnified to demonstrate that the primo vessel was stained well by Alcian blue inside the lymph vessel. In comparison, the right axillary node (Figure 1(f)) became weakly blue due to the Trypan blue that had been injected into the right inguinal node (Figure 1(g)) and had flowed via the lymph duct (Figure 1(h)). The magnified mosaic image of the lymph duct (Figure 1(i)) showed that the primo vessel was not stained at all. This showed that Trypan blue in this injection method was not effective for L-PVS visualization.

Bottom Line: We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS.Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing.These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nano Primo Research Center, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270, Republic of Korea ; College of Physical Education, The University of Suwon, Hwaseong 445-743, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
The primo vascular system (PVS), floating in lymph ducts, was too transparent to be observed by using a stereomicroscope. It was only detectable with the aid of staining dyes, for instance, Alcian blue, which was injected into the lymph nodes. Some dyes were absorbed preferentially by the PVS than the lymph wall. It remains a standing problem to know what dyes are absorbed better by the PVS than the lymph walls. Such information would be useful to unravel the biochemical properties of the PVS that are badly in need for obtaining large amount of PVS specimens. In the current work we tried two other familiar dyes which were used in PVS research before. We found that Trypan blue and toluidine blue did not visualize the PVS. Trypan blue was cleared by the natural washing. Toluidine blue did not stain the PVS, but it did leave stained spots in the lymph wall and its surrounding tissues, and it leaked out of the lymph wall to stain surrounding connective tissues. These completely different behaviors of the three dyes were found for the first time in the current work and provide valuable information to elucidate the mechanism through which some special dyes stained the PVS preferentially compared to the lymphatic wall.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus