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Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim.

Vodyanoy V, Pustovyy O, Globa L, Sorokulova I - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: However, he did not disclose in detail his methods.Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists.Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL 36849, USA ; School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA ; Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

ABSTRACT
In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Primo-vessel and node. (a) Electron micrograph of the internal primo-vessel (cross section) (×42,000). BL: primo-fluid, BD: p-subvessel, IS: interstitial substance, WBD: external envelope of p-subvessel, ENBD: endothelial nucleus of the p-subvessel, and CEC: cytoplasm of endothelial cell [7]. (b) Diagram of the transversal section of a primo-node. 1: Primo-node; 2: primo-vessel; 3: node capsule; 4: lumens; 5: p-microcells.
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fig2: Primo-vessel and node. (a) Electron micrograph of the internal primo-vessel (cross section) (×42,000). BL: primo-fluid, BD: p-subvessel, IS: interstitial substance, WBD: external envelope of p-subvessel, ENBD: endothelial nucleus of the p-subvessel, and CEC: cytoplasm of endothelial cell [7]. (b) Diagram of the transversal section of a primo-node. 1: Primo-node; 2: primo-vessel; 3: node capsule; 4: lumens; 5: p-microcells.

Mentions: The external envelope of the p-subvessel is composed of two layers (Figure 1(b)): the wall of endothelial cells with a rod-shaped nucleus of 15–20 μm and the outer membrane containing spindle-shaped cells with ellipsoidal nucleus of 13–27 μm long and 4-5 μm thick that are similar to smooth muscle cells. These cells are characterized by fine basophil granules in the cytoplasm and fine chromatin granules inside the nuclei. The thickness of the internal wall, when observed by an electron microscope, is only 0.1–0.2 μ. The p-subvessels are surrounded by fine, longitudinal, and circular fibers crossing each other (Figure 1(c)). A high magnification of a primo-vessel was imaged by Kim using transmission electron microscopy [7] and presented in Figure 2(a). It clearly shows that the external envelope of p-subvessel is a two-layer structure. The micrograph also shows that the endothelial nucleus (ENBD) of the p-subvessel belongs to the internal layer. So it is safe to speculate that the external layer is the outer membrane of p-subvessel that contains muscle-like cells.


Primo-Vascular System as Presented by Bong Han Kim.

Vodyanoy V, Pustovyy O, Globa L, Sorokulova I - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Primo-vessel and node. (a) Electron micrograph of the internal primo-vessel (cross section) (×42,000). BL: primo-fluid, BD: p-subvessel, IS: interstitial substance, WBD: external envelope of p-subvessel, ENBD: endothelial nucleus of the p-subvessel, and CEC: cytoplasm of endothelial cell [7]. (b) Diagram of the transversal section of a primo-node. 1: Primo-node; 2: primo-vessel; 3: node capsule; 4: lumens; 5: p-microcells.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562093&req=5

fig2: Primo-vessel and node. (a) Electron micrograph of the internal primo-vessel (cross section) (×42,000). BL: primo-fluid, BD: p-subvessel, IS: interstitial substance, WBD: external envelope of p-subvessel, ENBD: endothelial nucleus of the p-subvessel, and CEC: cytoplasm of endothelial cell [7]. (b) Diagram of the transversal section of a primo-node. 1: Primo-node; 2: primo-vessel; 3: node capsule; 4: lumens; 5: p-microcells.
Mentions: The external envelope of the p-subvessel is composed of two layers (Figure 1(b)): the wall of endothelial cells with a rod-shaped nucleus of 15–20 μm and the outer membrane containing spindle-shaped cells with ellipsoidal nucleus of 13–27 μm long and 4-5 μm thick that are similar to smooth muscle cells. These cells are characterized by fine basophil granules in the cytoplasm and fine chromatin granules inside the nuclei. The thickness of the internal wall, when observed by an electron microscope, is only 0.1–0.2 μ. The p-subvessels are surrounded by fine, longitudinal, and circular fibers crossing each other (Figure 1(c)). A high magnification of a primo-vessel was imaged by Kim using transmission electron microscopy [7] and presented in Figure 2(a). It clearly shows that the external envelope of p-subvessel is a two-layer structure. The micrograph also shows that the endothelial nucleus (ENBD) of the p-subvessel belongs to the internal layer. So it is safe to speculate that the external layer is the outer membrane of p-subvessel that contains muscle-like cells.

Bottom Line: However, he did not disclose in detail his methods.Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists.Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn, AL 36849, USA ; School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA ; Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

ABSTRACT
In the 1960s Bong Han Kim discovered and characterized a new vascular system. He was able to differentiate it clearly from vascular blood and lymph systems by the use of a variety of methods, which were available to him in the mid-20th century. He gave detailed characterization of the system and created comprehensive diagrams and photographs in his publications. He demonstrated that this system is composed of nodes and vessels, and it was responsible for tissue regeneration. However, he did not disclose in detail his methods. Consequently, his results are relatively obscure from the vantage point of contemporary scientists. The stains that Kim used had been perfected and had been in use for more than 100 years. Therefore, the names of the stains were directed to the explicit protocols for the usage with the particular cells or molecules. Traditionally, it was not normally necessary to describe the method used unless it is significantly deviated from the original method. In this present work, we have been able to disclose staining methods used by Kim.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus