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Behavioral Tagging: A Translation of the Synaptic Tagging and Capture Hypothesis.

Moncada D, Ballarini F, Viola H - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: BT explains how weak events, only capable of inducing transient forms of memories, can result in lasting memories when occurring close in time with other behaviorally relevant experiences that provide proteins.In this review, we detail the findings supporting the existence of BT process in rodents, leading to the consolidation, persistence, and interference of a memory.We focus on the molecular machinery taking place in these processes and describe the experimental data supporting the BT in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biologia Celular y Neurociencias "Dr. Eduardo De Robertis", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1121ABG Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Similar molecular machinery is activated in neurons following an electrical stimulus that induces synaptic changes and after learning sessions that trigger memory formation. Then, to achieve perdurability of these processes protein synthesis is required for the reinforcement of the changes induced in the network. The synaptic tagging and capture theory provided a strong framework to explain synaptic specificity and persistence of electrophysiological induced plastic changes. Ten years later, the behavioral tagging hypothesis (BT) made use of the same argument, applying it to learning and memory models. The hypothesis postulates that the formation of lasting memories relies on at least two processes: the setting of a learning tag and the synthesis of plasticity related proteins, which once captured at tagged sites allow memory consolidation. BT explains how weak events, only capable of inducing transient forms of memories, can result in lasting memories when occurring close in time with other behaviorally relevant experiences that provide proteins. In this review, we detail the findings supporting the existence of BT process in rodents, leading to the consolidation, persistence, and interference of a memory. We focus on the molecular machinery taking place in these processes and describe the experimental data supporting the BT in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Requirements of the behavioral tagging and capture processes. (a) A weak training that only induces transient form of memory (STM) also induces a learning tag (dashed circle). (b) In order to establish long-term memory (LTM) the tag set by the weak training captures PRPs (red circle) synthesized by an independent strong experience. The process presents temporal constrains and only is effective within a critical time window (only PRPs from the strong events experienced at time 2 and time 3 interact with the learning tag). Note that it exhibits symmetry because PRPs can be captured either if they are synthesized before or after the setting of the tag. (c) The spatial constraint is another important condition that operates in the behavioral tagging (BT) process because the PRPs should interact with the tags; thus, both training events should activate an overlapped population of neurons in the target structure (see (b)). When the learning tag is induced by a weak training (in light blue target structure) in different places where PRPs are synthesized (in white target structure), no BT process occurs and no LTM is observed.
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fig1: Requirements of the behavioral tagging and capture processes. (a) A weak training that only induces transient form of memory (STM) also induces a learning tag (dashed circle). (b) In order to establish long-term memory (LTM) the tag set by the weak training captures PRPs (red circle) synthesized by an independent strong experience. The process presents temporal constrains and only is effective within a critical time window (only PRPs from the strong events experienced at time 2 and time 3 interact with the learning tag). Note that it exhibits symmetry because PRPs can be captured either if they are synthesized before or after the setting of the tag. (c) The spatial constraint is another important condition that operates in the behavioral tagging (BT) process because the PRPs should interact with the tags; thus, both training events should activate an overlapped population of neurons in the target structure (see (b)). When the learning tag is induced by a weak training (in light blue target structure) in different places where PRPs are synthesized (in white target structure), no BT process occurs and no LTM is observed.

Mentions: The tagging and capture hypothesis and its dynamics provide an elegant theoretical framework to explain how lasting plastic changes, including LTM formation, occur in the brain. This led us to propose that learning induces the activation of some specific sets of synapses in the network and that in turn this activation could establish a mark (“learning tag”) capable of determining the place where the PRPs should be used and for what they should be used. The BT hypothesis postulates that a learning that induces LTM formation triggers both the setting of a learning tag and the induction of PRPs. To test this assumption the possibility of splitting these processes by using two different tasks was explored. In that sense, a weak-learning task that only induces STM does not cross through the consolidation phase and therefore removes the synthesis of PRPs from the scenario for this task (Figure 1(a)). Then, if the behavioral tagging and capture process exists, the learning tag set by a weak training could use the PRPs induced by the associated task leading to the consolidation of the transient memory into LTM (Figure 1(b)). In agreement with the synaptic plasticity model of STC, in order to capture the products, tags and PRPs should be present at the same time (Figure 1(b)) and at the same neural substrate (Figure 1(c)). Also, the process will exhibit symmetry and PRPs can be captured either if they are synthesized before or after the setting of the tag.


Behavioral Tagging: A Translation of the Synaptic Tagging and Capture Hypothesis.

Moncada D, Ballarini F, Viola H - Neural Plast. (2015)

Requirements of the behavioral tagging and capture processes. (a) A weak training that only induces transient form of memory (STM) also induces a learning tag (dashed circle). (b) In order to establish long-term memory (LTM) the tag set by the weak training captures PRPs (red circle) synthesized by an independent strong experience. The process presents temporal constrains and only is effective within a critical time window (only PRPs from the strong events experienced at time 2 and time 3 interact with the learning tag). Note that it exhibits symmetry because PRPs can be captured either if they are synthesized before or after the setting of the tag. (c) The spatial constraint is another important condition that operates in the behavioral tagging (BT) process because the PRPs should interact with the tags; thus, both training events should activate an overlapped population of neurons in the target structure (see (b)). When the learning tag is induced by a weak training (in light blue target structure) in different places where PRPs are synthesized (in white target structure), no BT process occurs and no LTM is observed.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562088&req=5

fig1: Requirements of the behavioral tagging and capture processes. (a) A weak training that only induces transient form of memory (STM) also induces a learning tag (dashed circle). (b) In order to establish long-term memory (LTM) the tag set by the weak training captures PRPs (red circle) synthesized by an independent strong experience. The process presents temporal constrains and only is effective within a critical time window (only PRPs from the strong events experienced at time 2 and time 3 interact with the learning tag). Note that it exhibits symmetry because PRPs can be captured either if they are synthesized before or after the setting of the tag. (c) The spatial constraint is another important condition that operates in the behavioral tagging (BT) process because the PRPs should interact with the tags; thus, both training events should activate an overlapped population of neurons in the target structure (see (b)). When the learning tag is induced by a weak training (in light blue target structure) in different places where PRPs are synthesized (in white target structure), no BT process occurs and no LTM is observed.
Mentions: The tagging and capture hypothesis and its dynamics provide an elegant theoretical framework to explain how lasting plastic changes, including LTM formation, occur in the brain. This led us to propose that learning induces the activation of some specific sets of synapses in the network and that in turn this activation could establish a mark (“learning tag”) capable of determining the place where the PRPs should be used and for what they should be used. The BT hypothesis postulates that a learning that induces LTM formation triggers both the setting of a learning tag and the induction of PRPs. To test this assumption the possibility of splitting these processes by using two different tasks was explored. In that sense, a weak-learning task that only induces STM does not cross through the consolidation phase and therefore removes the synthesis of PRPs from the scenario for this task (Figure 1(a)). Then, if the behavioral tagging and capture process exists, the learning tag set by a weak training could use the PRPs induced by the associated task leading to the consolidation of the transient memory into LTM (Figure 1(b)). In agreement with the synaptic plasticity model of STC, in order to capture the products, tags and PRPs should be present at the same time (Figure 1(b)) and at the same neural substrate (Figure 1(c)). Also, the process will exhibit symmetry and PRPs can be captured either if they are synthesized before or after the setting of the tag.

Bottom Line: BT explains how weak events, only capable of inducing transient forms of memories, can result in lasting memories when occurring close in time with other behaviorally relevant experiences that provide proteins.In this review, we detail the findings supporting the existence of BT process in rodents, leading to the consolidation, persistence, and interference of a memory.We focus on the molecular machinery taking place in these processes and describe the experimental data supporting the BT in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Biologia Celular y Neurociencias "Dr. Eduardo De Robertis", Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1121ABG Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ABSTRACT
Similar molecular machinery is activated in neurons following an electrical stimulus that induces synaptic changes and after learning sessions that trigger memory formation. Then, to achieve perdurability of these processes protein synthesis is required for the reinforcement of the changes induced in the network. The synaptic tagging and capture theory provided a strong framework to explain synaptic specificity and persistence of electrophysiological induced plastic changes. Ten years later, the behavioral tagging hypothesis (BT) made use of the same argument, applying it to learning and memory models. The hypothesis postulates that the formation of lasting memories relies on at least two processes: the setting of a learning tag and the synthesis of plasticity related proteins, which once captured at tagged sites allow memory consolidation. BT explains how weak events, only capable of inducing transient forms of memories, can result in lasting memories when occurring close in time with other behaviorally relevant experiences that provide proteins. In this review, we detail the findings supporting the existence of BT process in rodents, leading to the consolidation, persistence, and interference of a memory. We focus on the molecular machinery taking place in these processes and describe the experimental data supporting the BT in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus