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Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

Li XW, Fail J, Shelton AM - Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (Print) (2015)

Bottom Line: Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males.Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity.However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 USA ; Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China.

ABSTRACT

Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tabaci females mated multiple times during their lifetime and were subjected to a high rate of male harassment at all the ages we tested. Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males. Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity. Virgin females of arrhenotokous thrips produce only male progeny whereas mated females of arrhenotokous thrips produce males from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio. Our study demonstrates the conflicts between the occurrence of multiple matings and the cost of sexual activities. This raises questions about the evolution of multiple matings and polyandry in this species. Furthermore, these findings suggest that such phenomena may occur in other animal species and influence the evolution of their mating systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Survivorship of Thrips tabaci females and males in different treatments. a Females, b males
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Fig3: Survivorship of Thrips tabaci females and males in different treatments. a Females, b males

Mentions: The results of the post hoc analyses are presented in Table 4. Compared to the reference treatment (mated female kept alone), virgin females had a significantly shorter preoviposition period. The oviposition period and longevity of virgin females were longer than that of mated females kept alone. There were no differences in the daily and lifetime fecundity between virgin females and mated females kept alone. Mating also affected the survivorship of females. Compared with virgin females, the survival rate of mated females was significantly lower (Fig. 3a; log-rank test: χ21 = 5.30; p = 0.021).Table 4


Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

Li XW, Fail J, Shelton AM - Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (Print) (2015)

Survivorship of Thrips tabaci females and males in different treatments. a Females, b males
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562005&req=5

Fig3: Survivorship of Thrips tabaci females and males in different treatments. a Females, b males
Mentions: The results of the post hoc analyses are presented in Table 4. Compared to the reference treatment (mated female kept alone), virgin females had a significantly shorter preoviposition period. The oviposition period and longevity of virgin females were longer than that of mated females kept alone. There were no differences in the daily and lifetime fecundity between virgin females and mated females kept alone. Mating also affected the survivorship of females. Compared with virgin females, the survival rate of mated females was significantly lower (Fig. 3a; log-rank test: χ21 = 5.30; p = 0.021).Table 4

Bottom Line: Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males.Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity.However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 USA ; Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China.

ABSTRACT

Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tabaci females mated multiple times during their lifetime and were subjected to a high rate of male harassment at all the ages we tested. Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males. Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity. Virgin females of arrhenotokous thrips produce only male progeny whereas mated females of arrhenotokous thrips produce males from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio. Our study demonstrates the conflicts between the occurrence of multiple matings and the cost of sexual activities. This raises questions about the evolution of multiple matings and polyandry in this species. Furthermore, these findings suggest that such phenomena may occur in other animal species and influence the evolution of their mating systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus