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Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

Li XW, Fail J, Shelton AM - Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (Print) (2015)

Bottom Line: Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males.Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity.However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 USA ; Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China.

ABSTRACT

Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tabaci females mated multiple times during their lifetime and were subjected to a high rate of male harassment at all the ages we tested. Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males. Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity. Virgin females of arrhenotokous thrips produce only male progeny whereas mated females of arrhenotokous thrips produce males from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio. Our study demonstrates the conflicts between the occurrence of multiple matings and the cost of sexual activities. This raises questions about the evolution of multiple matings and polyandry in this species. Furthermore, these findings suggest that such phenomena may occur in other animal species and influence the evolution of their mating systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Harassment rate of mated and virgin males toward Thrips tabaci females at different ages. Different letters indicate significant difference (t test, p < 0.05)
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Fig2: Harassment rate of mated and virgin males toward Thrips tabaci females at different ages. Different letters indicate significant difference (t test, p < 0.05)

Mentions: Regardless of being paired with virgin or mated males, females at different ages suffered high rates of male harassment (Fig. 2). In general, there was no model effect of male harassment frequency (Wilks’ Λ = 0.923; F(4, 32) = 0.665; p = 0.621) between mated males and virgin males, and average male harassment rates were equal between females paired with mated or virgin males during the first 10-day (F(1, 35) = 2.713; p = 0.108) and the entire 30-day (F(1, 35) = 2.528; p = 0.121) period (Table 3). Subsequent t tests yielded no significant differences between virgin and mated males at any female age (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

Li XW, Fail J, Shelton AM - Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (Print) (2015)

Harassment rate of mated and virgin males toward Thrips tabaci females at different ages. Different letters indicate significant difference (t test, p < 0.05)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562005&req=5

Fig2: Harassment rate of mated and virgin males toward Thrips tabaci females at different ages. Different letters indicate significant difference (t test, p < 0.05)
Mentions: Regardless of being paired with virgin or mated males, females at different ages suffered high rates of male harassment (Fig. 2). In general, there was no model effect of male harassment frequency (Wilks’ Λ = 0.923; F(4, 32) = 0.665; p = 0.621) between mated males and virgin males, and average male harassment rates were equal between females paired with mated or virgin males during the first 10-day (F(1, 35) = 2.713; p = 0.108) and the entire 30-day (F(1, 35) = 2.528; p = 0.121) period (Table 3). Subsequent t tests yielded no significant differences between virgin and mated males at any female age (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males.Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity.However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 USA ; Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China.

ABSTRACT

Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tabaci females mated multiple times during their lifetime and were subjected to a high rate of male harassment at all the ages we tested. Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males. Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity. Virgin females of arrhenotokous thrips produce only male progeny whereas mated females of arrhenotokous thrips produce males from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio. Our study demonstrates the conflicts between the occurrence of multiple matings and the cost of sexual activities. This raises questions about the evolution of multiple matings and polyandry in this species. Furthermore, these findings suggest that such phenomena may occur in other animal species and influence the evolution of their mating systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus