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Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

Li XW, Fail J, Shelton AM - Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (Print) (2015)

Bottom Line: Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males.Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity.However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 USA ; Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China.

ABSTRACT

Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tabaci females mated multiple times during their lifetime and were subjected to a high rate of male harassment at all the ages we tested. Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males. Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity. Virgin females of arrhenotokous thrips produce only male progeny whereas mated females of arrhenotokous thrips produce males from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio. Our study demonstrates the conflicts between the occurrence of multiple matings and the cost of sexual activities. This raises questions about the evolution of multiple matings and polyandry in this species. Furthermore, these findings suggest that such phenomena may occur in other animal species and influence the evolution of their mating systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Accumulated percentage of re-mated females paired with a mated orvirgin male in Thrips tabaci
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Fig1: Accumulated percentage of re-mated females paired with a mated orvirgin male in Thrips tabaci

Mentions: In both mated male and virgin male treatments, female re-mating behavior occurred. During the first 10 days, an equal proportion of the females (41 ± 0.6 %) re-mated with virgin and mated males (Fig. 1). During the entire 30-day period, 78 ± 0.6 % of females re-mated with mated males while 67 ± 0.7 % of females re-mated with virgin males (Fig. 1). The experience of the male did not have a significant model effect on female mating frequencies (Wilks’ Λ = 0.923; F(4, 32) = 0.665; p = 0.621), and there were no significant differences detected by the follow-up univariate tests in the accumulated mating frequency between females paired with mated and virgin males during the first 10 days (F(1, 35) = 0.586; p = 0.449) and the entire 30 days (F(1, 35) = 0.001; p = 0.971) period (Table 3).Fig. 1


Female multiple matings and male harassment and their effects on fitness of arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

Li XW, Fail J, Shelton AM - Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. (Print) (2015)

Accumulated percentage of re-mated females paired with a mated orvirgin male in Thrips tabaci
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4562005&req=5

Fig1: Accumulated percentage of re-mated females paired with a mated orvirgin male in Thrips tabaci
Mentions: In both mated male and virgin male treatments, female re-mating behavior occurred. During the first 10 days, an equal proportion of the females (41 ± 0.6 %) re-mated with virgin and mated males (Fig. 1). During the entire 30-day period, 78 ± 0.6 % of females re-mated with mated males while 67 ± 0.7 % of females re-mated with virgin males (Fig. 1). The experience of the male did not have a significant model effect on female mating frequencies (Wilks’ Λ = 0.923; F(4, 32) = 0.665; p = 0.621), and there were no significant differences detected by the follow-up univariate tests in the accumulated mating frequency between females paired with mated and virgin males during the first 10 days (F(1, 35) = 0.586; p = 0.449) and the entire 30 days (F(1, 35) = 0.001; p = 0.971) period (Table 3).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males.Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity.However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 USA ; Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 China.

ABSTRACT

Although it is generally assumed that one or a few matings are sufficient to maximize female fitness and that mating is generally assumed to be costly to females, multiple matings of females have been reported across a wide and taxonomically diverse set of animals. Here, we investigated female mating frequency and male harassment rate in arrhenotokous Thrips tabaci. In addition, the cost to females of mating, multiple matings, and male harassment to females was evaluated. We found that T. tabaci females mated multiple times during their lifetime and were subjected to a high rate of male harassment at all the ages we tested. Mating was costly to females in terms of reducing longevity and delaying the initiation of egg laying, although mating did not affect the survivorship and longevity of males. Furthermore, continual exposure to males also resulted in a fitness cost to mated females in terms of delayed egg production and reduced fecundity. Virgin females of arrhenotokous thrips produce only male progeny whereas mated females of arrhenotokous thrips produce males from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. However, multiple matings did not allow females to fertilize a larger proportion of their eggs to increase the female offspring ratio. Our study demonstrates the conflicts between the occurrence of multiple matings and the cost of sexual activities. This raises questions about the evolution of multiple matings and polyandry in this species. Furthermore, these findings suggest that such phenomena may occur in other animal species and influence the evolution of their mating systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus