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Involvement of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning and Forgetting.

Yau SY, Li A, So KF - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals.Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear.In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2.

ABSTRACT
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Potential influences of adult neurogenesis on new memory formation and old memory clearance. Increased neurogenesis improves pattern separation when acquiring new information with much overlap and yet accelerates clearance of old memories. Conversely, decreased neurogenesis facilitates the temporal storage of short-term memory and thus enhances memory retrieval in the hippocampus, yet aggravating memory interference of similar events during new information acquisition.
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fig2: Potential influences of adult neurogenesis on new memory formation and old memory clearance. Increased neurogenesis improves pattern separation when acquiring new information with much overlap and yet accelerates clearance of old memories. Conversely, decreased neurogenesis facilitates the temporal storage of short-term memory and thus enhances memory retrieval in the hippocampus, yet aggravating memory interference of similar events during new information acquisition.

Mentions: Based on the evidence from both animal and human studies, investigations on adult neurogenesis have been answering the critical questions concerning how learning and memory are formed and regulated in adult mammalian brains. Pattern separation and forgetting induced by adult neurogenesis may be the way in which the brain normally learns and retrieves memory. A computational model used by Weisz and Argibay [148] demonstrated that learning itself increases the number of granule cells, whereas the retrieval of recent memories can still be improved with blockade of hippocampal neurogenesis; this suggests that neurogenesis can promote the hippocampal network capacity for new information and enhance the clearance of old memories. They later hypothesized that the addition of hippocampal adult-born neurons contributes not only to the successful neural adaptation to the environment with pattern separation and pattern integration for forming new memories, but also to the interference while retrieving old memories [149]. Emerging evidence from both theoretical and experimental studies has suggested the influences of adult neurogenesis on pattern separation for learning new information, as well as on interference with old memory retrieval that results in forgetting. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus may serve as a normal cellular process for learning and memory consolidation. Excessive addition or insufficient generation of newborn neurons may lead to abnormal clearance of old memories or failure in forming new memories in the hippocampus, respectively, subsequently disrupting memory process and storage in the brain (Figure 2). Therefore, changes of neurogenesis, either excessive or inadequate, may be deleterious to learning and memory. This raises the possibility that only when a threshold of adult neurogenesis is reached will the acquisition of new information be facilitated. Revealing how much increase or decrease of neurogenesis is appropriate for a good trade-off between new and old memories is of great interest for future research.


Involvement of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning and Forgetting.

Yau SY, Li A, So KF - Neural Plast. (2015)

Potential influences of adult neurogenesis on new memory formation and old memory clearance. Increased neurogenesis improves pattern separation when acquiring new information with much overlap and yet accelerates clearance of old memories. Conversely, decreased neurogenesis facilitates the temporal storage of short-term memory and thus enhances memory retrieval in the hippocampus, yet aggravating memory interference of similar events during new information acquisition.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561984&req=5

fig2: Potential influences of adult neurogenesis on new memory formation and old memory clearance. Increased neurogenesis improves pattern separation when acquiring new information with much overlap and yet accelerates clearance of old memories. Conversely, decreased neurogenesis facilitates the temporal storage of short-term memory and thus enhances memory retrieval in the hippocampus, yet aggravating memory interference of similar events during new information acquisition.
Mentions: Based on the evidence from both animal and human studies, investigations on adult neurogenesis have been answering the critical questions concerning how learning and memory are formed and regulated in adult mammalian brains. Pattern separation and forgetting induced by adult neurogenesis may be the way in which the brain normally learns and retrieves memory. A computational model used by Weisz and Argibay [148] demonstrated that learning itself increases the number of granule cells, whereas the retrieval of recent memories can still be improved with blockade of hippocampal neurogenesis; this suggests that neurogenesis can promote the hippocampal network capacity for new information and enhance the clearance of old memories. They later hypothesized that the addition of hippocampal adult-born neurons contributes not only to the successful neural adaptation to the environment with pattern separation and pattern integration for forming new memories, but also to the interference while retrieving old memories [149]. Emerging evidence from both theoretical and experimental studies has suggested the influences of adult neurogenesis on pattern separation for learning new information, as well as on interference with old memory retrieval that results in forgetting. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus may serve as a normal cellular process for learning and memory consolidation. Excessive addition or insufficient generation of newborn neurons may lead to abnormal clearance of old memories or failure in forming new memories in the hippocampus, respectively, subsequently disrupting memory process and storage in the brain (Figure 2). Therefore, changes of neurogenesis, either excessive or inadequate, may be deleterious to learning and memory. This raises the possibility that only when a threshold of adult neurogenesis is reached will the acquisition of new information be facilitated. Revealing how much increase or decrease of neurogenesis is appropriate for a good trade-off between new and old memories is of great interest for future research.

Bottom Line: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals.Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear.In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2.

ABSTRACT
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus