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Involvement of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning and Forgetting.

Yau SY, Li A, So KF - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals.Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear.In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2.

ABSTRACT
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anatomy of hippocampal network. The diagram illustrates the monosynaptic and the trisynaptic pathways in the hippocampus. The monosynaptic pathway consists of a direct projection from the EC to CA1 or CA3, whereas the trisynaptic pathway consists of sequential projections from EC to DG, CA3, and then to CA1. EC: entorhinal cortex; DG: dentate gyrus; CA: cornu ammonis.
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fig1: Anatomy of hippocampal network. The diagram illustrates the monosynaptic and the trisynaptic pathways in the hippocampus. The monosynaptic pathway consists of a direct projection from the EC to CA1 or CA3, whereas the trisynaptic pathway consists of sequential projections from EC to DG, CA3, and then to CA1. EC: entorhinal cortex; DG: dentate gyrus; CA: cornu ammonis.

Mentions: The hippocampus, named for its structural resemblance to a seahorse, is a crucial component of the limbic system and is suggested to be indispensable for various functions, particularly memory acquisition and consolidation and spatial navigation [28, 29]. The hippocampus is composed of four morphologically different subregions, including the DG, Cornu Ammonis (CA), presubiculum, and subiculum [30]. According to the morphological size and appearance of glutamatergic principal cells, which are one of the key cellular types of hippocampal circuits, the CA can be further divided into two major regions: CA1 and CA3 [31]. There are two classical synaptic circuit systems within the hippocampus, namely, the trisynaptic and monosynaptic circuits (Figure 1). The former system is prominently made up of the DG and the CA subregions. Dense axons originating in layers II and III of the EC form the perforant pathway, which forms glutamatergic synapses on dendrites of granule cells in the DG. Thereon, the axons of DG granule cells form the Mossy fiber tract, projecting to the CA3 pyramidal cells whose axons again constitute the Schaffer collateral pathway that ultimately projects back to the subiculum and the EC. Following this principal loop, the sensory input initially received from other parts of the brain is processed and consolidated by the hippocampus and returned to the EC to affect the activity of the whole brain. In terms of the monosynaptic circuit, sparse axons from the EC directly project to the CA1 or CA3 subregion [31].


Involvement of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Learning and Forgetting.

Yau SY, Li A, So KF - Neural Plast. (2015)

Anatomy of hippocampal network. The diagram illustrates the monosynaptic and the trisynaptic pathways in the hippocampus. The monosynaptic pathway consists of a direct projection from the EC to CA1 or CA3, whereas the trisynaptic pathway consists of sequential projections from EC to DG, CA3, and then to CA1. EC: entorhinal cortex; DG: dentate gyrus; CA: cornu ammonis.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561984&req=5

fig1: Anatomy of hippocampal network. The diagram illustrates the monosynaptic and the trisynaptic pathways in the hippocampus. The monosynaptic pathway consists of a direct projection from the EC to CA1 or CA3, whereas the trisynaptic pathway consists of sequential projections from EC to DG, CA3, and then to CA1. EC: entorhinal cortex; DG: dentate gyrus; CA: cornu ammonis.
Mentions: The hippocampus, named for its structural resemblance to a seahorse, is a crucial component of the limbic system and is suggested to be indispensable for various functions, particularly memory acquisition and consolidation and spatial navigation [28, 29]. The hippocampus is composed of four morphologically different subregions, including the DG, Cornu Ammonis (CA), presubiculum, and subiculum [30]. According to the morphological size and appearance of glutamatergic principal cells, which are one of the key cellular types of hippocampal circuits, the CA can be further divided into two major regions: CA1 and CA3 [31]. There are two classical synaptic circuit systems within the hippocampus, namely, the trisynaptic and monosynaptic circuits (Figure 1). The former system is prominently made up of the DG and the CA subregions. Dense axons originating in layers II and III of the EC form the perforant pathway, which forms glutamatergic synapses on dendrites of granule cells in the DG. Thereon, the axons of DG granule cells form the Mossy fiber tract, projecting to the CA3 pyramidal cells whose axons again constitute the Schaffer collateral pathway that ultimately projects back to the subiculum and the EC. Following this principal loop, the sensory input initially received from other parts of the brain is processed and consolidated by the hippocampus and returned to the EC to affect the activity of the whole brain. In terms of the monosynaptic circuit, sparse axons from the EC directly project to the CA1 or CA3 subregion [31].

Bottom Line: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals.Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear.In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong ; Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada V8P 5C2.

ABSTRACT
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus