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Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

Akhtar MJ, Alhadlaq HA, Alshamsan A, Majeed Khan MA, Ahamed M - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm.The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml.Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Western blot analysis of protein levels of apoptotic genes in MCF-7 cells due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure.(A) Immunoblot images of p53, bax and bcl-2 proteins. Blots are cropped and no other bands were observed. All the gels have run under same experimental conditions. (B) Protein levels were also analyzed by densitometric analysis using AlphaEase TM FC StandAlone V.4.0.0 software. Bar diagrams are from mean ± SD of three immunoblots. Results are expressed as a fold change over the control group. (C) Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes. Enzyme data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).
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f9: Western blot analysis of protein levels of apoptotic genes in MCF-7 cells due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure.(A) Immunoblot images of p53, bax and bcl-2 proteins. Blots are cropped and no other bands were observed. All the gels have run under same experimental conditions. (B) Protein levels were also analyzed by densitometric analysis using AlphaEase TM FC StandAlone V.4.0.0 software. Bar diagrams are from mean ± SD of three immunoblots. Results are expressed as a fold change over the control group. (C) Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes. Enzyme data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).

Mentions: Western blotting was used to examine the expression of apoptotic genes at protein levels in MCF-7 cells exposed to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration of 50 μg/ml for 24 h. Results showed that protein level of p53 and bax genes was up-regulated while the expression of bcl-2 was down-regulated in cells treated with pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Fig. 9A). Densitometric analysis indicated the effect of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles was higher as compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles supporting the transcriptional data (Fig. 9B).


Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

Akhtar MJ, Alhadlaq HA, Alshamsan A, Majeed Khan MA, Ahamed M - Sci Rep (2015)

Western blot analysis of protein levels of apoptotic genes in MCF-7 cells due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure.(A) Immunoblot images of p53, bax and bcl-2 proteins. Blots are cropped and no other bands were observed. All the gels have run under same experimental conditions. (B) Protein levels were also analyzed by densitometric analysis using AlphaEase TM FC StandAlone V.4.0.0 software. Bar diagrams are from mean ± SD of three immunoblots. Results are expressed as a fold change over the control group. (C) Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes. Enzyme data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561961&req=5

f9: Western blot analysis of protein levels of apoptotic genes in MCF-7 cells due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure.(A) Immunoblot images of p53, bax and bcl-2 proteins. Blots are cropped and no other bands were observed. All the gels have run under same experimental conditions. (B) Protein levels were also analyzed by densitometric analysis using AlphaEase TM FC StandAlone V.4.0.0 software. Bar diagrams are from mean ± SD of three immunoblots. Results are expressed as a fold change over the control group. (C) Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced the activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes. Enzyme data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).
Mentions: Western blotting was used to examine the expression of apoptotic genes at protein levels in MCF-7 cells exposed to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles at a concentration of 50 μg/ml for 24 h. Results showed that protein level of p53 and bax genes was up-regulated while the expression of bcl-2 was down-regulated in cells treated with pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Fig. 9A). Densitometric analysis indicated the effect of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles was higher as compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles supporting the transcriptional data (Fig. 9B).

Bottom Line: Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm.The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml.Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus