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Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

Akhtar MJ, Alhadlaq HA, Alshamsan A, Majeed Khan MA, Ahamed M - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm.The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml.Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

MMP loss due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure in MCF-7 cells.(A) Representative fluorescent image showing that pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles increased the JC-1 monomers (green fluorescence) and decreased the JC-1 aggregates (red fluorescence) in MCF-7 cells as compared to control. Fluorescent images were captured with a fluorescence microscope (OLYMPUS CKX 41). Morphology of cells also supported the data of apoptosis (MMP loss) showing that treated cells detached from surface and become rounded. (B) JC-1 ratio (monomers/aggregates) in treated and control cells. Data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).
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f7: MMP loss due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure in MCF-7 cells.(A) Representative fluorescent image showing that pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles increased the JC-1 monomers (green fluorescence) and decreased the JC-1 aggregates (red fluorescence) in MCF-7 cells as compared to control. Fluorescent images were captured with a fluorescence microscope (OLYMPUS CKX 41). Morphology of cells also supported the data of apoptosis (MMP loss) showing that treated cells detached from surface and become rounded. (B) JC-1 ratio (monomers/aggregates) in treated and control cells. Data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).

Mentions: Changes in MMP due to nanoparticles exposure are associated with apoptosis30. The MMP was evaluated after pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure by JC-1 probe using fluorescence microscopy and microplate reader. The green/red fluorescence intensity ratio was used to express the changes of MMP and the increased ratio indicates the MMP loss. Fluorescence microscopy showing the higher green fluorescence and lower red fluorescence in nanoparticles treated cells as compared to controls (Fig. 7A). Detachment from the surface and rounded morphology of cells due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure also supported the MMP results. Quantitative data showed the elevated level of green/red ratio (indicator of MMP loss) with the increasing of nanoparticles doses (25–100 μg/ml) (Fig. 7B). Similar to cytotoxicity and oxidative stress data, MMP loss due to Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles was higher than those of the pure ZnO nanoparticles.


Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

Akhtar MJ, Alhadlaq HA, Alshamsan A, Majeed Khan MA, Ahamed M - Sci Rep (2015)

MMP loss due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure in MCF-7 cells.(A) Representative fluorescent image showing that pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles increased the JC-1 monomers (green fluorescence) and decreased the JC-1 aggregates (red fluorescence) in MCF-7 cells as compared to control. Fluorescent images were captured with a fluorescence microscope (OLYMPUS CKX 41). Morphology of cells also supported the data of apoptosis (MMP loss) showing that treated cells detached from surface and become rounded. (B) JC-1 ratio (monomers/aggregates) in treated and control cells. Data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561961&req=5

f7: MMP loss due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure in MCF-7 cells.(A) Representative fluorescent image showing that pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles increased the JC-1 monomers (green fluorescence) and decreased the JC-1 aggregates (red fluorescence) in MCF-7 cells as compared to control. Fluorescent images were captured with a fluorescence microscope (OLYMPUS CKX 41). Morphology of cells also supported the data of apoptosis (MMP loss) showing that treated cells detached from surface and become rounded. (B) JC-1 ratio (monomers/aggregates) in treated and control cells. Data represented are mean ± SD of three identical experiments made in three replicate. *Statistically significant difference as compared to the controls (p < 0.05).
Mentions: Changes in MMP due to nanoparticles exposure are associated with apoptosis30. The MMP was evaluated after pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure by JC-1 probe using fluorescence microscopy and microplate reader. The green/red fluorescence intensity ratio was used to express the changes of MMP and the increased ratio indicates the MMP loss. Fluorescence microscopy showing the higher green fluorescence and lower red fluorescence in nanoparticles treated cells as compared to controls (Fig. 7A). Detachment from the surface and rounded morphology of cells due to pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles exposure also supported the MMP results. Quantitative data showed the elevated level of green/red ratio (indicator of MMP loss) with the increasing of nanoparticles doses (25–100 μg/ml) (Fig. 7B). Similar to cytotoxicity and oxidative stress data, MMP loss due to Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles was higher than those of the pure ZnO nanoparticles.

Bottom Line: Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm.The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml.Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus