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Large predatory coral trout species unlikely to meet increasing energetic demands in a warming ocean.

Johansen JL, Pratchett MS, Messmer V, Coker DJ, Tobin AJ, Hoey AS - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure.Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals.However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Increased ocean temperature due to climate change is raising metabolic demands and energy requirements of marine ectotherms. If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure. Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals. However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity. Consequently, ubiquitous increases in energy consumption due to climate change will increase top-down competition for a dwindling biomass of prey, potentially distorting entire food webs and associated fisheries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The feeding frequency, meal size and average overall food intake of common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) across four temperature treatments. Values of meal size and overall food intake are in % body-weight (% bw) and error bars are standard error of the mean. Significant differences across temperatures are indicated with letters above each column. (A) shows the number of days between meals; (B) shows average meal size, and (C) shows the average overall food intake at each temperature treatment.
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f1: The feeding frequency, meal size and average overall food intake of common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) across four temperature treatments. Values of meal size and overall food intake are in % body-weight (% bw) and error bars are standard error of the mean. Significant differences across temperatures are indicated with letters above each column. (A) shows the number of days between meals; (B) shows average meal size, and (C) shows the average overall food intake at each temperature treatment.

Mentions: Following six weeks of slow acclimation and conditioning, before experiments began, we quantified food intake of individually tagged fish fed to satiation every 1–2 days over a 21-day period, recording the feeding frequency (i.e. days between meals), meal size (i.e. total mass of all food pieces consumed at each feeding session relative to body weight which was measured at the beginning and at the end of the trial) and overall food intake (i.e. cumulative weight of all food pieces consumed/feeding frequency). We found that temperature had a significant positive effect on feeding frequency (F3,108 = 10.61, p < 0.001), meal size (F3,108 = 6.72, p = 0.001), and overall food intake (F3,108 = 14.93, p < 0.001, Fig. 1). Every 3 °C increase in temperature led to a 1.15-fold increase in the overall feeding frequency, from feeding on average once every 3.5 ± 0.2 days at 24 °C to once every 2.3 ± 0.2 days (mean ± SE) at 33 °C, and a 1.23-fold increase in average overall food intake from 1.1 ± 0.1% body-weight per day (%bw/day) at 24 °C to 2.0 ± 0.2%bw/day at 33 °C. Meal size showed a minimal change from 3.8 ± 0.2%bw at 24 °C to 4.2 ± 0.2%bw at 33 °C. While coral trout gained 6.5 ± 1.8% body-weight at 27 °C (F2,108 = 5.69, p = 0.001) over the experimental period, there was no significant increase or reduction in the body-weight of trout at the other temperature treatments (supplement S1), showing that food intake was sufficient to maintain body-weight across all temperatures.


Large predatory coral trout species unlikely to meet increasing energetic demands in a warming ocean.

Johansen JL, Pratchett MS, Messmer V, Coker DJ, Tobin AJ, Hoey AS - Sci Rep (2015)

The feeding frequency, meal size and average overall food intake of common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) across four temperature treatments. Values of meal size and overall food intake are in % body-weight (% bw) and error bars are standard error of the mean. Significant differences across temperatures are indicated with letters above each column. (A) shows the number of days between meals; (B) shows average meal size, and (C) shows the average overall food intake at each temperature treatment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561880&req=5

f1: The feeding frequency, meal size and average overall food intake of common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) across four temperature treatments. Values of meal size and overall food intake are in % body-weight (% bw) and error bars are standard error of the mean. Significant differences across temperatures are indicated with letters above each column. (A) shows the number of days between meals; (B) shows average meal size, and (C) shows the average overall food intake at each temperature treatment.
Mentions: Following six weeks of slow acclimation and conditioning, before experiments began, we quantified food intake of individually tagged fish fed to satiation every 1–2 days over a 21-day period, recording the feeding frequency (i.e. days between meals), meal size (i.e. total mass of all food pieces consumed at each feeding session relative to body weight which was measured at the beginning and at the end of the trial) and overall food intake (i.e. cumulative weight of all food pieces consumed/feeding frequency). We found that temperature had a significant positive effect on feeding frequency (F3,108 = 10.61, p < 0.001), meal size (F3,108 = 6.72, p = 0.001), and overall food intake (F3,108 = 14.93, p < 0.001, Fig. 1). Every 3 °C increase in temperature led to a 1.15-fold increase in the overall feeding frequency, from feeding on average once every 3.5 ± 0.2 days at 24 °C to once every 2.3 ± 0.2 days (mean ± SE) at 33 °C, and a 1.23-fold increase in average overall food intake from 1.1 ± 0.1% body-weight per day (%bw/day) at 24 °C to 2.0 ± 0.2%bw/day at 33 °C. Meal size showed a minimal change from 3.8 ± 0.2%bw at 24 °C to 4.2 ± 0.2%bw at 33 °C. While coral trout gained 6.5 ± 1.8% body-weight at 27 °C (F2,108 = 5.69, p = 0.001) over the experimental period, there was no significant increase or reduction in the body-weight of trout at the other temperature treatments (supplement S1), showing that food intake was sufficient to maintain body-weight across all temperatures.

Bottom Line: If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure.Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals.However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Increased ocean temperature due to climate change is raising metabolic demands and energy requirements of marine ectotherms. If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure. Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals. However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity. Consequently, ubiquitous increases in energy consumption due to climate change will increase top-down competition for a dwindling biomass of prey, potentially distorting entire food webs and associated fisheries.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus