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Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach.

Lee SH, Kim SP, Cho YS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game.In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable.The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Korea University Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; "switching," "mutual rush," "mutual avoidance," and "unfair" patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

No MeSH data available.


Simulated behavioral patterns using the self-concept model with the average parameters of the players in each pattern.
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Figure 4: Simulated behavioral patterns using the self-concept model with the average parameters of the players in each pattern.

Mentions: The parameters in the models were fitted to the data in a way that maximizes the likelihood (See Model Fitting). Because the parameter values of a player imply a certain strategy in a game that leads to different behavioral patterns with a different opponent's strategy, the parameters of Players 1 and 2 in the pairs with the same behavioral pattern were averaged, respectively. The fitted values of the models are shown in Table 1. In the simulations using the parameters in Table 1, the self-concept model successfully generated the patterns. The number of two-trial windows with distinct patterns was counted for each pattern over 100 trials of the simulation. On average from 10,000 simulations, there were 43.12 (standard deviation (SD = 7.13) switching patterns, 66.11 (SD = 7.27) mutual avoidance patterns, 46.29 (SD = 10.85) mutual rush patterns, and 55.28 (SD = 6.27) unfair patterns out of 99 two-trial windows in the 100 trial simulations, respectively, when the parameter values for a certain behavioral pattern were used. A sample of simulated behavioral pattern is shown in Figure 4.


Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach.

Lee SH, Kim SP, Cho YS - Front Psychol (2015)

Simulated behavioral patterns using the self-concept model with the average parameters of the players in each pattern.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561810&req=5

Figure 4: Simulated behavioral patterns using the self-concept model with the average parameters of the players in each pattern.
Mentions: The parameters in the models were fitted to the data in a way that maximizes the likelihood (See Model Fitting). Because the parameter values of a player imply a certain strategy in a game that leads to different behavioral patterns with a different opponent's strategy, the parameters of Players 1 and 2 in the pairs with the same behavioral pattern were averaged, respectively. The fitted values of the models are shown in Table 1. In the simulations using the parameters in Table 1, the self-concept model successfully generated the patterns. The number of two-trial windows with distinct patterns was counted for each pattern over 100 trials of the simulation. On average from 10,000 simulations, there were 43.12 (standard deviation (SD = 7.13) switching patterns, 66.11 (SD = 7.27) mutual avoidance patterns, 46.29 (SD = 10.85) mutual rush patterns, and 55.28 (SD = 6.27) unfair patterns out of 99 two-trial windows in the 100 trial simulations, respectively, when the parameter values for a certain behavioral pattern were used. A sample of simulated behavioral pattern is shown in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game.In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable.The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Korea University Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; "switching," "mutual rush," "mutual avoidance," and "unfair" patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

No MeSH data available.