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Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach.

Lee SH, Kim SP, Cho YS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game.In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable.The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Korea University Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; "switching," "mutual rush," "mutual avoidance," and "unfair" patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

No MeSH data available.


Procedure of the chicken game experiment.
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Figure 2: Procedure of the chicken game experiment.

Mentions: The experiment was conducted in a pair of participants who had not met each other before. Participants were not instructed to pursue a certain goal in a game, but were informed that the chicken game tests which person becomes a “chicken.” They were told that they would be paid the summed rewards (costs) of two randomly picked trials from the experimental session in addition to 10,000 KRW. A trial in the game progressed as follows. At the beginning of each trial, a white fixation cross (0.5 × 0.5 cm) was presented for 1 s in the center of the screen with a black background (see Figure 2). Then, two cars with different colors popped up on each horizontal ends of the screen. The car on the left side was assigned to the player seated on the left, and the car on the right side was assigned to the player on the right. A trial was composed of three 1-s intervals. After each interval, the cars approached to each other by 8 cm and eventually crashed after 3 s, unless one or two players avoided before. The color of the horizontal line below the cars was initially green in the first interval, changed to yellow in the second interval, and changed again to red in the third interval, imitating the colors of road signals. The players were to choose to avoid by pressing the key assigned to them at any interval. If any participant chose to avoid at any time during a trial, his/her car on the screen disappeared in the next interval. At the end of every trial, the resulting reward of the trial was shown for 1 s on the screen of each participant. The resulting rewards followed the reward table shown in Figure 1.


Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach.

Lee SH, Kim SP, Cho YS - Front Psychol (2015)

Procedure of the chicken game experiment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561810&req=5

Figure 2: Procedure of the chicken game experiment.
Mentions: The experiment was conducted in a pair of participants who had not met each other before. Participants were not instructed to pursue a certain goal in a game, but were informed that the chicken game tests which person becomes a “chicken.” They were told that they would be paid the summed rewards (costs) of two randomly picked trials from the experimental session in addition to 10,000 KRW. A trial in the game progressed as follows. At the beginning of each trial, a white fixation cross (0.5 × 0.5 cm) was presented for 1 s in the center of the screen with a black background (see Figure 2). Then, two cars with different colors popped up on each horizontal ends of the screen. The car on the left side was assigned to the player seated on the left, and the car on the right side was assigned to the player on the right. A trial was composed of three 1-s intervals. After each interval, the cars approached to each other by 8 cm and eventually crashed after 3 s, unless one or two players avoided before. The color of the horizontal line below the cars was initially green in the first interval, changed to yellow in the second interval, and changed again to red in the third interval, imitating the colors of road signals. The players were to choose to avoid by pressing the key assigned to them at any interval. If any participant chose to avoid at any time during a trial, his/her car on the screen disappeared in the next interval. At the end of every trial, the resulting reward of the trial was shown for 1 s on the screen of each participant. The resulting rewards followed the reward table shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game.In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable.The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Korea University Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; "switching," "mutual rush," "mutual avoidance," and "unfair" patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

No MeSH data available.