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Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach.

Lee SH, Kim SP, Cho YS - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game.In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable.The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Korea University Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; "switching," "mutual rush," "mutual avoidance," and "unfair" patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

No MeSH data available.


Reward structure of the chicken game in the present study (in KRW).
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Figure 1: Reward structure of the chicken game in the present study (in KRW).

Mentions: An iterated chicken game was used in the present study to obtain behavioral data that reflect self-concept as well as reciprocity (e.g., Jankowski, 1990). In a chicken game, each of the two players controls a car that rushes toward each other. A player who avoids becomes a “chicken” and loses certain amount of reward to the opponent. If nobody avoids and the cars crash, they both lose great amount of reward. Nobody loses or gains anything when both of the players choose to avoid. The reward structure of the game used in the present experiment is shown in Figure 1. The chicken game is competitive in its nature and has no single fairness equilibrium or Nash equilibrium. One needs to rush to have a chance to gain more benefit than the opponent, but it has a high risk of crash. When both players keep avoiding, they always have an incentive to betray and rush to earn more. Therefore, this game allows us to observe dynamic behavioral patterns that do not easily allow consensus between players. Thus, it is appropriate to see the gradual process of rule establishment between the players, while varied patterns are expected through the process. Furthermore, it is free from the beliefs about intentions because the rush is always harmful to the other player and the avoidance is always helpful; unintended harm, or kindness does not exist in the game. It makes the application and comparison of various models quite easy and simple.


Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach.

Lee SH, Kim SP, Cho YS - Front Psychol (2015)

Reward structure of the chicken game in the present study (in KRW).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561810&req=5

Figure 1: Reward structure of the chicken game in the present study (in KRW).
Mentions: An iterated chicken game was used in the present study to obtain behavioral data that reflect self-concept as well as reciprocity (e.g., Jankowski, 1990). In a chicken game, each of the two players controls a car that rushes toward each other. A player who avoids becomes a “chicken” and loses certain amount of reward to the opponent. If nobody avoids and the cars crash, they both lose great amount of reward. Nobody loses or gains anything when both of the players choose to avoid. The reward structure of the game used in the present experiment is shown in Figure 1. The chicken game is competitive in its nature and has no single fairness equilibrium or Nash equilibrium. One needs to rush to have a chance to gain more benefit than the opponent, but it has a high risk of crash. When both players keep avoiding, they always have an incentive to betray and rush to earn more. Therefore, this game allows us to observe dynamic behavioral patterns that do not easily allow consensus between players. Thus, it is appropriate to see the gradual process of rule establishment between the players, while varied patterns are expected through the process. Furthermore, it is free from the beliefs about intentions because the rush is always harmful to the other player and the avoidance is always helpful; unintended harm, or kindness does not exist in the game. It makes the application and comparison of various models quite easy and simple.

Bottom Line: When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game.In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable.The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Korea University Seoul, South Korea.

ABSTRACT
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; "switching," "mutual rush," "mutual avoidance," and "unfair" patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with "switching" and "mutual avoidance" patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the "unfair" and "mutual rush" patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.

No MeSH data available.