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Children's and adolescents' snacking: interplay between the individual and the school class.

Giese H, Tãut D, Ollila H, Baban AS, Absetz P, Schupp HT, Renner B - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In addition, it tested whether these normative effects are facilitated by corresponding individual and class food preferences or a positive social self-concept.This effect was facilitated by individual, unhealthy food preferences [[Formula: see text], p < 0.001, PRV = 0.57] and a positive social self-concept [[Formula: see text], p = 0.015, PRV = 0.12].Actual class norms are related to children's and adolescents' eating, but their impact depends on individual differences in preferences and social self-concept.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Objective: In schools, perceived norms of classmates facilitate but can also inhibit unhealthy food intake in children and adolescents. However, the role of actual class behaviors and attitudes is less established. Thus, the present study examined classmates' actual eating behavior and food preferences in relation to actual food intake. In addition, it tested whether these normative effects are facilitated by corresponding individual and class food preferences or a positive social self-concept.

Methods: The food preferences, social self-concept, and unhealthy snacking frequency of 734 Finnish, 829 German, and 555 Romanian children and adolescents (aged 8-19) from 127 school-classes were assessed.

Results: Multilevel analysis at individual and class level showed that classmates shared similar snacking habits (14.7% variance). Moreover, the unhealthy food preference of a school-class was associated with its collective snacking [[Formula: see text], p < 0.001, PRV = 0.32). This effect was facilitated by individual, unhealthy food preferences [[Formula: see text], p < 0.001, PRV = 0.57] and a positive social self-concept [[Formula: see text], p = 0.015, PRV = 0.12].

Conclusions: Actual class norms are related to children's and adolescents' eating, but their impact depends on individual differences in preferences and social self-concept.

No MeSH data available.


Simple effects of class preference. Simple slope effects for /1SD/ in each variable. The snacking frequency refers to snacking of each single snack.
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Figure 1: Simple effects of class preference. Simple slope effects for /1SD/ in each variable. The snacking frequency refers to snacking of each single snack.

Mentions: To illustrate the different interaction effects, a simple slope analysis (see Figure 1) was conducted. This analysis yielded that unhealthy class preferences were associated with increased unhealthy snacking most in individuals with unhealthy food preferences and a positive social self-concept (b = 0.34, z = 8.69, p < 0.001). Conversely, class preferences were less closely related to snacking for participants with unhealthy preferences and a negative social self-concept, (b = 0.21, z = 5.89, p < 0.001). Class preference effects on unhealthy snacking further decreased if an individual preferred healthy food regardless of social self-concept (positive: b = 0.15, z = 4.13, p < 0.001; negative: b = 0.11, z = 3.23, p = 0.001). That is, individuals consumed more unhealthy snacks if both the individual and the class preferred unhealthy foods, and this increased under the condition of a positive social self-concept. Yet, if the class and the individual preferred healthy foods, individuals consumed the least unhealthy snacks, irrespective of social self-concept (Figure 1).


Children's and adolescents' snacking: interplay between the individual and the school class.

Giese H, Tãut D, Ollila H, Baban AS, Absetz P, Schupp HT, Renner B - Front Psychol (2015)

Simple effects of class preference. Simple slope effects for /1SD/ in each variable. The snacking frequency refers to snacking of each single snack.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561809&req=5

Figure 1: Simple effects of class preference. Simple slope effects for /1SD/ in each variable. The snacking frequency refers to snacking of each single snack.
Mentions: To illustrate the different interaction effects, a simple slope analysis (see Figure 1) was conducted. This analysis yielded that unhealthy class preferences were associated with increased unhealthy snacking most in individuals with unhealthy food preferences and a positive social self-concept (b = 0.34, z = 8.69, p < 0.001). Conversely, class preferences were less closely related to snacking for participants with unhealthy preferences and a negative social self-concept, (b = 0.21, z = 5.89, p < 0.001). Class preference effects on unhealthy snacking further decreased if an individual preferred healthy food regardless of social self-concept (positive: b = 0.15, z = 4.13, p < 0.001; negative: b = 0.11, z = 3.23, p = 0.001). That is, individuals consumed more unhealthy snacks if both the individual and the class preferred unhealthy foods, and this increased under the condition of a positive social self-concept. Yet, if the class and the individual preferred healthy foods, individuals consumed the least unhealthy snacks, irrespective of social self-concept (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: In addition, it tested whether these normative effects are facilitated by corresponding individual and class food preferences or a positive social self-concept.This effect was facilitated by individual, unhealthy food preferences [[Formula: see text], p < 0.001, PRV = 0.57] and a positive social self-concept [[Formula: see text], p = 0.015, PRV = 0.12].Actual class norms are related to children's and adolescents' eating, but their impact depends on individual differences in preferences and social self-concept.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz Konstanz, Germany.

ABSTRACT

Objective: In schools, perceived norms of classmates facilitate but can also inhibit unhealthy food intake in children and adolescents. However, the role of actual class behaviors and attitudes is less established. Thus, the present study examined classmates' actual eating behavior and food preferences in relation to actual food intake. In addition, it tested whether these normative effects are facilitated by corresponding individual and class food preferences or a positive social self-concept.

Methods: The food preferences, social self-concept, and unhealthy snacking frequency of 734 Finnish, 829 German, and 555 Romanian children and adolescents (aged 8-19) from 127 school-classes were assessed.

Results: Multilevel analysis at individual and class level showed that classmates shared similar snacking habits (14.7% variance). Moreover, the unhealthy food preference of a school-class was associated with its collective snacking [[Formula: see text], p < 0.001, PRV = 0.32). This effect was facilitated by individual, unhealthy food preferences [[Formula: see text], p < 0.001, PRV = 0.57] and a positive social self-concept [[Formula: see text], p = 0.015, PRV = 0.12].

Conclusions: Actual class norms are related to children's and adolescents' eating, but their impact depends on individual differences in preferences and social self-concept.

No MeSH data available.