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Magnesium ions mitigate biofilm formation of Bacillus species via downregulation of matrix genes expression.

Oknin H, Steinberg D, Shemesh M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons.We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase.The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Quality and Safety, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center Bet-Dagan, Israel ; Biofilm Research Laboratory, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Institute of Dental Sciences, Hebrew University-Hadassah Jerusalem, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Mg(2+) ions on biofilm formation by Bacillus species, which are considered as problematic microorganisms in the food industry. We found that magnesium ions are capable to inhibit significantly biofilm formation of Bacillus species at 50 mM concentration and higher. We further report that Mg(2+) ions don't inhibit bacterial growth at elevated concentrations; hence, the mode of action of Mg(2+) ions is apparently specific to inhibition of biofilm formation. Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons. We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase. The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis. Since the matrix gene expression is tightly controlled by Spo0A dependent pathway, we conclude that Mg(2+) ions could affect the signal transduction for biofilm formation through this pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Mg2+ ions block the biofilm bundles formation of B. subtilis. CLSM images of fluorescently tagged B. subtilis cells (YC161 with Pspank-gfp) following 24 h incubation in biofilm promoting medium.
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Figure 3: Mg2+ ions block the biofilm bundles formation of B. subtilis. CLSM images of fluorescently tagged B. subtilis cells (YC161 with Pspank-gfp) following 24 h incubation in biofilm promoting medium.

Mentions: Next, we visualized microscopically the effect of magnesium ions by testing bundling phenotype of fluorescently tagged B. subtilis cells (YC161 with Pspank-gfp), which produce GFP constitutively (Chai et al., 2011). As seen in Figure 3, there is significant reduction in bundling ability of B. subtilis cells in the presence of 25 mM MgCl2 and higher. This result further confirms the potential of Mg2+ ions to inhibit biofilm formation by B. subtilis.


Magnesium ions mitigate biofilm formation of Bacillus species via downregulation of matrix genes expression.

Oknin H, Steinberg D, Shemesh M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Mg2+ ions block the biofilm bundles formation of B. subtilis. CLSM images of fluorescently tagged B. subtilis cells (YC161 with Pspank-gfp) following 24 h incubation in biofilm promoting medium.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561805&req=5

Figure 3: Mg2+ ions block the biofilm bundles formation of B. subtilis. CLSM images of fluorescently tagged B. subtilis cells (YC161 with Pspank-gfp) following 24 h incubation in biofilm promoting medium.
Mentions: Next, we visualized microscopically the effect of magnesium ions by testing bundling phenotype of fluorescently tagged B. subtilis cells (YC161 with Pspank-gfp), which produce GFP constitutively (Chai et al., 2011). As seen in Figure 3, there is significant reduction in bundling ability of B. subtilis cells in the presence of 25 mM MgCl2 and higher. This result further confirms the potential of Mg2+ ions to inhibit biofilm formation by B. subtilis.

Bottom Line: Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons.We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase.The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Quality and Safety, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center Bet-Dagan, Israel ; Biofilm Research Laboratory, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Institute of Dental Sciences, Hebrew University-Hadassah Jerusalem, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Mg(2+) ions on biofilm formation by Bacillus species, which are considered as problematic microorganisms in the food industry. We found that magnesium ions are capable to inhibit significantly biofilm formation of Bacillus species at 50 mM concentration and higher. We further report that Mg(2+) ions don't inhibit bacterial growth at elevated concentrations; hence, the mode of action of Mg(2+) ions is apparently specific to inhibition of biofilm formation. Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons. We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase. The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis. Since the matrix gene expression is tightly controlled by Spo0A dependent pathway, we conclude that Mg(2+) ions could affect the signal transduction for biofilm formation through this pathway.

No MeSH data available.