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Magnesium ions mitigate biofilm formation of Bacillus species via downregulation of matrix genes expression.

Oknin H, Steinberg D, Shemesh M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons.We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase.The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Quality and Safety, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center Bet-Dagan, Israel ; Biofilm Research Laboratory, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Institute of Dental Sciences, Hebrew University-Hadassah Jerusalem, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Mg(2+) ions on biofilm formation by Bacillus species, which are considered as problematic microorganisms in the food industry. We found that magnesium ions are capable to inhibit significantly biofilm formation of Bacillus species at 50 mM concentration and higher. We further report that Mg(2+) ions don't inhibit bacterial growth at elevated concentrations; hence, the mode of action of Mg(2+) ions is apparently specific to inhibition of biofilm formation. Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons. We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase. The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis. Since the matrix gene expression is tightly controlled by Spo0A dependent pathway, we conclude that Mg(2+) ions could affect the signal transduction for biofilm formation through this pathway.

No MeSH data available.


Mg2+ ions block biofilm formation of B. subtilis. The effect of addition of different concentrations of MgCl2 to LBGM medium on pellicle and colony biofilm formation by B. subtilis NCIB3610.
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Figure 1: Mg2+ ions block biofilm formation of B. subtilis. The effect of addition of different concentrations of MgCl2 to LBGM medium on pellicle and colony biofilm formation by B. subtilis NCIB3610.

Mentions: The starting point of this investigation was the observation that at the elevated concentrations Mg2+ ions could inhibit biofilm formation by B. subtilis. As seen in Figure 1, Mg2+ ions inhibited notably pellicle formation by B. subtilis in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Mg2+ ions was not restricted to MgCl2 compound since we found that other magnesium salts, such as MgSO4 have also inhibited the pellicle formation (data not shown). This indicates that the inhibitory effect of magnesium salts is attributed to Mg2+ ions. Moreover, colony type biofilm formation was also inhibited significantly in the presence of high concentrations of Mg2+ ions (Figure 1).


Magnesium ions mitigate biofilm formation of Bacillus species via downregulation of matrix genes expression.

Oknin H, Steinberg D, Shemesh M - Front Microbiol (2015)

Mg2+ ions block biofilm formation of B. subtilis. The effect of addition of different concentrations of MgCl2 to LBGM medium on pellicle and colony biofilm formation by B. subtilis NCIB3610.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561805&req=5

Figure 1: Mg2+ ions block biofilm formation of B. subtilis. The effect of addition of different concentrations of MgCl2 to LBGM medium on pellicle and colony biofilm formation by B. subtilis NCIB3610.
Mentions: The starting point of this investigation was the observation that at the elevated concentrations Mg2+ ions could inhibit biofilm formation by B. subtilis. As seen in Figure 1, Mg2+ ions inhibited notably pellicle formation by B. subtilis in a concentration dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Mg2+ ions was not restricted to MgCl2 compound since we found that other magnesium salts, such as MgSO4 have also inhibited the pellicle formation (data not shown). This indicates that the inhibitory effect of magnesium salts is attributed to Mg2+ ions. Moreover, colony type biofilm formation was also inhibited significantly in the presence of high concentrations of Mg2+ ions (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons.We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase.The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Food Quality and Safety, Institute for Postharvest Technology and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center Bet-Dagan, Israel ; Biofilm Research Laboratory, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Institute of Dental Sciences, Hebrew University-Hadassah Jerusalem, Israel.

ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Mg(2+) ions on biofilm formation by Bacillus species, which are considered as problematic microorganisms in the food industry. We found that magnesium ions are capable to inhibit significantly biofilm formation of Bacillus species at 50 mM concentration and higher. We further report that Mg(2+) ions don't inhibit bacterial growth at elevated concentrations; hence, the mode of action of Mg(2+) ions is apparently specific to inhibition of biofilm formation. Biofilm formation depends on the synthesis of extracellular matrix, whose production in Bacillus subtilis is specified by two major operons: the epsA-O and tapA operons. We analyzed the effect of Mg(2+) ions on matrix gene expression using transcriptional fusions of the promoters for eps and tapA to the gene encoding β galactosidase. The expression of the two matrix operons was reduced drastically in response to Mg(2+) ions suggesting about their inhibitory effect on expression of the matrix genes in B. subtilis. Since the matrix gene expression is tightly controlled by Spo0A dependent pathway, we conclude that Mg(2+) ions could affect the signal transduction for biofilm formation through this pathway.

No MeSH data available.