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The Enterobacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis Presents Novel Adaptations Related to Its Association with Fungus-Growing Termites.

Sapountzis P, Gruntjes T, Otani S, Estevez J, da Costa RR, Plunkett G, Perna NT, Poulsen M - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2015)

Bottom Line: Fungus-growing termites rely on symbiotic microorganisms to help break down plant material and to obtain nutrients.Taking diverse approaches, we obtained a solid phylogenetic placement of T. odontotermitis among the Enterobacteriaceae, investigated the physiology and enzymatic profiles of T. odontotermitis isolates, determined the localization of the bacterium in the termite gut, compared draft genomes of two T. odontotermitis isolates to those of their close relatives, and examined the expression of genes relevant to host colonization and putative symbiont functions.Our findings support the hypothesis that T. odontotermitis is a facultative symbiont mainly located in the paunch compartment of the gut, with possible roles in carbohydrate metabolism and aflatoxin degradation, while displaying adaptations to association with the termite host, such as expressing genes for a type VI secretion system which has been demonstrated to assist bacterial competition, colonization, and survival within hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Sapountzis@bio.ku.dk.

No MeSH data available.


(Top) Results of API 20E enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. Dark gray, positive result; light gray, negative result. Activity for citrate utilization (medium gray) was not clear. (Bottom) Results of API ZYM enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. On the five-point scale, scores of 1 and 2 (two lightest gray shades) are considered negative, while scores of 3 to 5 are considered positive (three darkest gray shades), with increasing enzyme activity.
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Figure 2: (Top) Results of API 20E enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. Dark gray, positive result; light gray, negative result. Activity for citrate utilization (medium gray) was not clear. (Bottom) Results of API ZYM enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. On the five-point scale, scores of 1 and 2 (two lightest gray shades) are considered negative, while scores of 3 to 5 are considered positive (three darkest gray shades), with increasing enzyme activity.

Mentions: Figure 2 provides the results of the API 20E and API ZYM tests, among which the API 20E test revealed identical results for all T. odontotermitis strains, with a lack of H2S production in T. guamensis. API ZYM testing showed only slight differences between the different T. odontotermitis and T. guamensis scores, as they were primarily either all negative (scores of 1 and 2) or all positive (scores of 3 to 5) (Fig. 2).


The Enterobacterium Trabulsiella odontotermitis Presents Novel Adaptations Related to Its Association with Fungus-Growing Termites.

Sapountzis P, Gruntjes T, Otani S, Estevez J, da Costa RR, Plunkett G, Perna NT, Poulsen M - Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2015)

(Top) Results of API 20E enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. Dark gray, positive result; light gray, negative result. Activity for citrate utilization (medium gray) was not clear. (Bottom) Results of API ZYM enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. On the five-point scale, scores of 1 and 2 (two lightest gray shades) are considered negative, while scores of 3 to 5 are considered positive (three darkest gray shades), with increasing enzyme activity.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561680&req=5

Figure 2: (Top) Results of API 20E enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. Dark gray, positive result; light gray, negative result. Activity for citrate utilization (medium gray) was not clear. (Bottom) Results of API ZYM enzyme activity assays for 11 Trabulsiella strains. On the five-point scale, scores of 1 and 2 (two lightest gray shades) are considered negative, while scores of 3 to 5 are considered positive (three darkest gray shades), with increasing enzyme activity.
Mentions: Figure 2 provides the results of the API 20E and API ZYM tests, among which the API 20E test revealed identical results for all T. odontotermitis strains, with a lack of H2S production in T. guamensis. API ZYM testing showed only slight differences between the different T. odontotermitis and T. guamensis scores, as they were primarily either all negative (scores of 1 and 2) or all positive (scores of 3 to 5) (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Fungus-growing termites rely on symbiotic microorganisms to help break down plant material and to obtain nutrients.Taking diverse approaches, we obtained a solid phylogenetic placement of T. odontotermitis among the Enterobacteriaceae, investigated the physiology and enzymatic profiles of T. odontotermitis isolates, determined the localization of the bacterium in the termite gut, compared draft genomes of two T. odontotermitis isolates to those of their close relatives, and examined the expression of genes relevant to host colonization and putative symbiont functions.Our findings support the hypothesis that T. odontotermitis is a facultative symbiont mainly located in the paunch compartment of the gut, with possible roles in carbohydrate metabolism and aflatoxin degradation, while displaying adaptations to association with the termite host, such as expressing genes for a type VI secretion system which has been demonstrated to assist bacterial competition, colonization, and survival within hosts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Sapountzis@bio.ku.dk.

No MeSH data available.