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Surgery plus anesthesia induces loss of attention in mice.

Ren Q, Peng M, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Chen M, Yin N, Marcantonio ER, Xie Z - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium.We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements.These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University Nanjing, China ; Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Charlestown, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium. Inattention is one of the symptoms of delirium. Increases in the levels of α-synuclein and S100β have been reported to be associated with delirium. Therefore, we set out to determine the effects of surgery plus general anesthesia on the behavioral changes (including loss of attention) in mice and on the levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the brain tissues of these mice. C57BL/6J mice (2- to 8-months-old) had a simple laparotomy plus isoflurane anesthesia. The behavioral changes, including attention level and the speed of movements, were determined 12, 24, and 48 h after the surgery plus anesthesia in the mice. The levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the cortex of these mice following the surgery plus anesthesia were determined by Western blot analysis. We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements. There were increases in the levels of total α-synuclein (139% ± 33.5 vs. 100% ± 13.7, P = 0.037, N = 6) and S100β (142% ± 7.7 vs. 100% ± 6, P = 0.002, N = 6) in the cortex of the mice 12 h following the surgery plus anesthesia. These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium. We could use the surgery plus anesthesia in mice to develop an animal model to study postoperative delirium.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 to 6). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 to 6) and the surgery plus anesthesia 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 and 2). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. **P < 0.01.
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Figure 3: Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 to 6). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 to 6) and the surgery plus anesthesia 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 and 2). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. **P < 0.01.

Mentions: Increase in the S100β levels has been reported to be associated with postoperative delirium (Hall et al., 2013; Khan et al., 2013). Therefore, we assessed the effects of the surgery plus anesthesia on the S100β levels in the cortex of the mice. Immunoblotting of S100β showed that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) induced a visible increase in the levels of bands in the Western blot representing S100β as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) in the cortex of the mice (Figure 3A). There was not a significant difference in the β-Actin levels in the cortex of the mice between the surgery plus anesthesia condition and the sham condition. Quantification of the Western blot, based on the ratio of S100β levels to β-Actin levels, showed that the surgery plus anesthesia increased the S100β level in the cortex of the mice as compared to the sham condition: 142% ± 7.7 vs. 100% ± 6, P = 0.002 (Figure 3B, Student's t-test, N = 6 in each group). The surgery plus anesthesia did not increase the S100β level in the cortex of the mice as compared to the sham condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (Figures 3C,D). These data suggested that the surgery plus anesthesia enhanced the S100β levels in the brain tissue of mice in a time-dependent manner.


Surgery plus anesthesia induces loss of attention in mice.

Ren Q, Peng M, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Chen M, Yin N, Marcantonio ER, Xie Z - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 to 6). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 to 6) and the surgery plus anesthesia 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 and 2). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. **P < 0.01.
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Figure 3: Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 to 6). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 to 6) and the surgery plus anesthesia 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7 to 12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 1 and 2). There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of S100β in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (white bar). N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. **P < 0.01.
Mentions: Increase in the S100β levels has been reported to be associated with postoperative delirium (Hall et al., 2013; Khan et al., 2013). Therefore, we assessed the effects of the surgery plus anesthesia on the S100β levels in the cortex of the mice. Immunoblotting of S100β showed that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) induced a visible increase in the levels of bands in the Western blot representing S100β as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) in the cortex of the mice (Figure 3A). There was not a significant difference in the β-Actin levels in the cortex of the mice between the surgery plus anesthesia condition and the sham condition. Quantification of the Western blot, based on the ratio of S100β levels to β-Actin levels, showed that the surgery plus anesthesia increased the S100β level in the cortex of the mice as compared to the sham condition: 142% ± 7.7 vs. 100% ± 6, P = 0.002 (Figure 3B, Student's t-test, N = 6 in each group). The surgery plus anesthesia did not increase the S100β level in the cortex of the mice as compared to the sham condition 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (Figures 3C,D). These data suggested that the surgery plus anesthesia enhanced the S100β levels in the brain tissue of mice in a time-dependent manner.

Bottom Line: There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium.We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements.These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University Nanjing, China ; Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Charlestown, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium. Inattention is one of the symptoms of delirium. Increases in the levels of α-synuclein and S100β have been reported to be associated with delirium. Therefore, we set out to determine the effects of surgery plus general anesthesia on the behavioral changes (including loss of attention) in mice and on the levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the brain tissues of these mice. C57BL/6J mice (2- to 8-months-old) had a simple laparotomy plus isoflurane anesthesia. The behavioral changes, including attention level and the speed of movements, were determined 12, 24, and 48 h after the surgery plus anesthesia in the mice. The levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the cortex of these mice following the surgery plus anesthesia were determined by Western blot analysis. We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements. There were increases in the levels of total α-synuclein (139% ± 33.5 vs. 100% ± 13.7, P = 0.037, N = 6) and S100β (142% ± 7.7 vs. 100% ± 6, P = 0.002, N = 6) in the cortex of the mice 12 h following the surgery plus anesthesia. These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium. We could use the surgery plus anesthesia in mice to develop an animal model to study postoperative delirium.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus