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Surgery plus anesthesia induces loss of attention in mice.

Ren Q, Peng M, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Chen M, Yin N, Marcantonio ER, Xie Z - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium.We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements.These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University Nanjing, China ; Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Charlestown, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium. Inattention is one of the symptoms of delirium. Increases in the levels of α-synuclein and S100β have been reported to be associated with delirium. Therefore, we set out to determine the effects of surgery plus general anesthesia on the behavioral changes (including loss of attention) in mice and on the levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the brain tissues of these mice. C57BL/6J mice (2- to 8-months-old) had a simple laparotomy plus isoflurane anesthesia. The behavioral changes, including attention level and the speed of movements, were determined 12, 24, and 48 h after the surgery plus anesthesia in the mice. The levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the cortex of these mice following the surgery plus anesthesia were determined by Western blot analysis. We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements. There were increases in the levels of total α-synuclein (139% ± 33.5 vs. 100% ± 13.7, P = 0.037, N = 6) and S100β (142% ± 7.7 vs. 100% ± 6, P = 0.002, N = 6) in the cortex of the mice 12 h following the surgery plus anesthesia. These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium. We could use the surgery plus anesthesia in mice to develop an animal model to study postoperative delirium.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of total α-synuclein (T-α-synuclein) in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1–6) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. *P < 0.05.
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Figure 2: Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of total α-synuclein (T-α-synuclein) in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1–6) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. *P < 0.05.

Mentions: Increases in the levels of α-synuclein have been reported to be associated with postoperative delirium in humans (Sunwoo et al., 2013). Next, we determined the effects of the surgery plus anesthesia on the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice. Immunoblotting of T-α-synuclein showed that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) induced a visible increase in the levels of bands in the Western blot representing T-α-synuclein compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) in the cortex of the mice (Figure 2A). There was not a significant difference in the β-Actin levels in the cortex of the mice between the surgery plus anesthesia condition and the sham condition. Quantification of the Western blot, based on the ratio of T-α-synuclein levels to β-Actin levels, showed that the surgery plus anesthesia increased the T-α-synuclein level in the cortex of mice compared to the sham condition: 100% ± 13.7 vs. 139% ± 33.5, P = 0.037 (Figure 2B, Student's t-test, N = 6 in each group). The surgery plus anesthesia did not increase the T-α-synuclein level in the cortex of mice, compared to the sham condition, 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (Figures 2C,D). These results suggested that the surgery plus anesthesia enhanced the T-α-synuclein levels in the brain tissue of the mice in a time-dependent manner.


Surgery plus anesthesia induces loss of attention in mice.

Ren Q, Peng M, Dong Y, Zhang Y, Chen M, Yin N, Marcantonio ER, Xie Z - Front Cell Neurosci (2015)

Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of total α-synuclein (T-α-synuclein) in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1–6) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. *P < 0.05.
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Figure 2: Surgery plus anesthesia increases the levels of total α-synuclein (T-α-synuclein) in the cortex of mice 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (A) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1–6) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12). (B) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) increases the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 12 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. (C) Western blot analysis shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. There is no significant difference in the levels of β-Actin in the cortex of mice between the sham condition (lanes 1 and 2) and the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 3 and 4). (D) Quantification of the Western blot shows that the surgery plus anesthesia (black bar) does not increase the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice as compared to the control condition (white bar) 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia. N = 6 in the control condition group and N = 6 in the surgery plus anesthesia group. *P < 0.05.
Mentions: Increases in the levels of α-synuclein have been reported to be associated with postoperative delirium in humans (Sunwoo et al., 2013). Next, we determined the effects of the surgery plus anesthesia on the levels of T-α-synuclein in the cortex of mice. Immunoblotting of T-α-synuclein showed that the surgery plus anesthesia (lanes 7–12) induced a visible increase in the levels of bands in the Western blot representing T-α-synuclein compared to the sham condition (lanes 1–6) in the cortex of the mice (Figure 2A). There was not a significant difference in the β-Actin levels in the cortex of the mice between the surgery plus anesthesia condition and the sham condition. Quantification of the Western blot, based on the ratio of T-α-synuclein levels to β-Actin levels, showed that the surgery plus anesthesia increased the T-α-synuclein level in the cortex of mice compared to the sham condition: 100% ± 13.7 vs. 139% ± 33.5, P = 0.037 (Figure 2B, Student's t-test, N = 6 in each group). The surgery plus anesthesia did not increase the T-α-synuclein level in the cortex of mice, compared to the sham condition, 24 h after the surgery plus anesthesia (Figures 2C,D). These results suggested that the surgery plus anesthesia enhanced the T-α-synuclein levels in the brain tissue of the mice in a time-dependent manner.

Bottom Line: There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium.We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements.These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesia, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University Nanjing, China ; Geriatric Anesthesia Research Unit, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Charlestown, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
There is a need to develop animal models to study postoperative delirium. Inattention is one of the symptoms of delirium. Increases in the levels of α-synuclein and S100β have been reported to be associated with delirium. Therefore, we set out to determine the effects of surgery plus general anesthesia on the behavioral changes (including loss of attention) in mice and on the levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the brain tissues of these mice. C57BL/6J mice (2- to 8-months-old) had a simple laparotomy plus isoflurane anesthesia. The behavioral changes, including attention level and the speed of movements, were determined 12, 24, and 48 h after the surgery plus anesthesia in the mice. The levels of α-synuclein and S100β in the cortex of these mice following the surgery plus anesthesia were determined by Western blot analysis. We found that there was a loss of attention at 24, but not 12 or 48 h following the surgery plus anesthesia (49% ± 5 vs. 33% ± 2.9, P = 0.011, N = 12) in the mice without significantly affecting the speed of their movements. There were increases in the levels of total α-synuclein (139% ± 33.5 vs. 100% ± 13.7, P = 0.037, N = 6) and S100β (142% ± 7.7 vs. 100% ± 6, P = 0.002, N = 6) in the cortex of the mice 12 h following the surgery plus anesthesia. These findings suggested that the surgery plus isoflurane anesthesia might induce behavioral and biochemical/cellular changes associated with delirium. We could use the surgery plus anesthesia in mice to develop an animal model to study postoperative delirium.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus