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NeuroControl of movement: system identification approach for clinical benefit.

Meskers CG, de Groot JH, de Vlugt E, Schouten AC - Front Integr Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Understanding of this improper regulation not only requires the understanding of the role of the neural controller, but also attention for: (1) the interaction between the neural controller and the "plant", comprising the biomechanical properties of the musculaskeletal system including the viscoelastic properties of the contractile (muscle) and non-contractile (connective) tissues: neuromechanics; and (2) the closed loop nature of neural controller and biomechanical system in which cause and effect interact and are hence difficult to separate.Properties of the neural controller and the biomechanical system need to be addressed synchronously by the combination of haptic robotics, (closed loop) system identification (SI), and neuro-mechanical modeling.In this paper, we argue that assessment of neuromechanics in response to well defined environmental conditions and tasks may provide for key parameters to understand posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases and for biomarkers to increase accuracy of prediction models for functional outcome and effects of intervention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Progress in diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders after neurological diseases like stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), dystonia and at old age requires understanding of the altered capacity to adequately respond to physical obstacles in the environment. With posture and movement disorders, the control of muscles is hampered, resulting in aberrant force generation and improper impedance regulation. Understanding of this improper regulation not only requires the understanding of the role of the neural controller, but also attention for: (1) the interaction between the neural controller and the "plant", comprising the biomechanical properties of the musculaskeletal system including the viscoelastic properties of the contractile (muscle) and non-contractile (connective) tissues: neuromechanics; and (2) the closed loop nature of neural controller and biomechanical system in which cause and effect interact and are hence difficult to separate. Properties of the neural controller and the biomechanical system need to be addressed synchronously by the combination of haptic robotics, (closed loop) system identification (SI), and neuro-mechanical modeling. In this paper, we argue that assessment of neuromechanics in response to well defined environmental conditions and tasks may provide for key parameters to understand posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases and for biomarkers to increase accuracy of prediction models for functional outcome and effects of intervention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Closed loop of sensing, processing and appropriate action: peripheral (spinia) reflexes.
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Figure 1: Closed loop of sensing, processing and appropriate action: peripheral (spinia) reflexes.

Mentions: Our body segments interact with fixed and moving obstacles and objects in the environment. This involves exchange of mass, energy, linear or angular momentum in order to produce adequate posture and movement patterns. For example when reaching and grasping objects, the right amount of muscle force is required to properly control the joint impedance. During walking, the mechanical interaction between the leg segments and other body parts requires continuous control. To reduce the impact of posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases it is crucial to investigate how the “altered” system adapts to varying tasks and environmental conditions. Both the neural system (controller) and the muscles (“motor”) are end-effectors at the level of the joint. System adaptability may subsequently be translated to the modulatory capacity of the neuromuscular system. Understanding of the modulatory capacity of the neuromuscular system in terms of mechanics, i.e., neuromechanics will ultimately allow for relating specific system states to the global level of function. Of key importance is the notion that components determining the neuromechanics continuously interact within a closed loop. For example, the proprioceptive muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs sense muscle states, information is processed and subsequently fed back to the muscle (basic control loop, Figure 1).


NeuroControl of movement: system identification approach for clinical benefit.

Meskers CG, de Groot JH, de Vlugt E, Schouten AC - Front Integr Neurosci (2015)

Closed loop of sensing, processing and appropriate action: peripheral (spinia) reflexes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561669&req=5

Figure 1: Closed loop of sensing, processing and appropriate action: peripheral (spinia) reflexes.
Mentions: Our body segments interact with fixed and moving obstacles and objects in the environment. This involves exchange of mass, energy, linear or angular momentum in order to produce adequate posture and movement patterns. For example when reaching and grasping objects, the right amount of muscle force is required to properly control the joint impedance. During walking, the mechanical interaction between the leg segments and other body parts requires continuous control. To reduce the impact of posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases it is crucial to investigate how the “altered” system adapts to varying tasks and environmental conditions. Both the neural system (controller) and the muscles (“motor”) are end-effectors at the level of the joint. System adaptability may subsequently be translated to the modulatory capacity of the neuromuscular system. Understanding of the modulatory capacity of the neuromuscular system in terms of mechanics, i.e., neuromechanics will ultimately allow for relating specific system states to the global level of function. Of key importance is the notion that components determining the neuromechanics continuously interact within a closed loop. For example, the proprioceptive muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organs sense muscle states, information is processed and subsequently fed back to the muscle (basic control loop, Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Understanding of this improper regulation not only requires the understanding of the role of the neural controller, but also attention for: (1) the interaction between the neural controller and the "plant", comprising the biomechanical properties of the musculaskeletal system including the viscoelastic properties of the contractile (muscle) and non-contractile (connective) tissues: neuromechanics; and (2) the closed loop nature of neural controller and biomechanical system in which cause and effect interact and are hence difficult to separate.Properties of the neural controller and the biomechanical system need to be addressed synchronously by the combination of haptic robotics, (closed loop) system identification (SI), and neuro-mechanical modeling.In this paper, we argue that assessment of neuromechanics in response to well defined environmental conditions and tasks may provide for key parameters to understand posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases and for biomarkers to increase accuracy of prediction models for functional outcome and effects of intervention.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Progress in diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders after neurological diseases like stroke, cerebral palsy (CP), dystonia and at old age requires understanding of the altered capacity to adequately respond to physical obstacles in the environment. With posture and movement disorders, the control of muscles is hampered, resulting in aberrant force generation and improper impedance regulation. Understanding of this improper regulation not only requires the understanding of the role of the neural controller, but also attention for: (1) the interaction between the neural controller and the "plant", comprising the biomechanical properties of the musculaskeletal system including the viscoelastic properties of the contractile (muscle) and non-contractile (connective) tissues: neuromechanics; and (2) the closed loop nature of neural controller and biomechanical system in which cause and effect interact and are hence difficult to separate. Properties of the neural controller and the biomechanical system need to be addressed synchronously by the combination of haptic robotics, (closed loop) system identification (SI), and neuro-mechanical modeling. In this paper, we argue that assessment of neuromechanics in response to well defined environmental conditions and tasks may provide for key parameters to understand posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases and for biomarkers to increase accuracy of prediction models for functional outcome and effects of intervention.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus