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Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

Brekke P, Ewen JG, Clucas G, Santure AW - Evol Appl (2015)

Bottom Line: Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species.Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred).Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London Regents Park, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

No MeSH data available.


Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) plots based on the average model parameters (Model set 3) showing changes in (A) annual reproductive success (ARS) with age and (B) extra-pair (EP) ARS with age for territorial (dark grey solid lines) and floater (black solid line) males. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.
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fig03: Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) plots based on the average model parameters (Model set 3) showing changes in (A) annual reproductive success (ARS) with age and (B) extra-pair (EP) ARS with age for territorial (dark grey solid lines) and floater (black solid line) males. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.

Mentions: We found a strong quadratic, age-dependent male ARS and EPARS for territorial males and EPARS for floaters, with first-year and over 5-year olds having lower reproductive success relative to males in their prime (Fig. 3A; Table 4; Table S6 and S7). However, we have relatively few observations for males 5 years or older. Territorial males have a much higher within-pair and extra-pair reproductive success across their lifetime, despite floater males ‘specializing’ in EPCs (Fig. 3B; Table 4a,b). Inbreeding and tarsus length were both included in the top models that explained ARS and EPARS (Table 4a,b), but were not significant. None of the interactions tested were included in the top-model set or had a significant effect on male reproductive success.


Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

Brekke P, Ewen JG, Clucas G, Santure AW - Evol Appl (2015)

Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) plots based on the average model parameters (Model set 3) showing changes in (A) annual reproductive success (ARS) with age and (B) extra-pair (EP) ARS with age for territorial (dark grey solid lines) and floater (black solid line) males. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561569&req=5

fig03: Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) plots based on the average model parameters (Model set 3) showing changes in (A) annual reproductive success (ARS) with age and (B) extra-pair (EP) ARS with age for territorial (dark grey solid lines) and floater (black solid line) males. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.
Mentions: We found a strong quadratic, age-dependent male ARS and EPARS for territorial males and EPARS for floaters, with first-year and over 5-year olds having lower reproductive success relative to males in their prime (Fig. 3A; Table 4; Table S6 and S7). However, we have relatively few observations for males 5 years or older. Territorial males have a much higher within-pair and extra-pair reproductive success across their lifetime, despite floater males ‘specializing’ in EPCs (Fig. 3B; Table 4a,b). Inbreeding and tarsus length were both included in the top models that explained ARS and EPARS (Table 4a,b), but were not significant. None of the interactions tested were included in the top-model set or had a significant effect on male reproductive success.

Bottom Line: Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species.Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred).Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London Regents Park, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

No MeSH data available.