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Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

Brekke P, Ewen JG, Clucas G, Santure AW - Evol Appl (2015)

Bottom Line: Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species.Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred).Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London Regents Park, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

No MeSH data available.


Changes in the probability of a male becoming territorial with age. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.
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fig02: Changes in the probability of a male becoming territorial with age. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.

Mentions: On average, a third of males in the population became floaters (Table S3). Male mating behaviour was also strongly age dependent (Fig. 2). The relationship between age and mating status was quadratic, with an increase in the likelihood of becoming a territorial between the ages of one and two and a decline in males over five (Fig. 2; Table 1; Tables S1 and S4). However, we note that relatively few males survive and reproduce past the age of 5 years. Inbreeding and tarsus length were included in the top-model set and averaged model and had a relatively high importance, but had no significant effect on whether a male became a floater or territory holder (Table 1; Table S4). None of the interactions tested were included in the top-model set or had a significant effect on male mating status (Table S4).


Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

Brekke P, Ewen JG, Clucas G, Santure AW - Evol Appl (2015)

Changes in the probability of a male becoming territorial with age. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561569&req=5

fig02: Changes in the probability of a male becoming territorial with age. Vertical lines are the 95% confidence intervals around the mean.
Mentions: On average, a third of males in the population became floaters (Table S3). Male mating behaviour was also strongly age dependent (Fig. 2). The relationship between age and mating status was quadratic, with an increase in the likelihood of becoming a territorial between the ages of one and two and a decline in males over five (Fig. 2; Table 1; Tables S1 and S4). However, we note that relatively few males survive and reproduce past the age of 5 years. Inbreeding and tarsus length were included in the top-model set and averaged model and had a relatively high importance, but had no significant effect on whether a male became a floater or territory holder (Table 1; Table S4). None of the interactions tested were included in the top-model set or had a significant effect on male mating status (Table S4).

Bottom Line: Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species.Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred).Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London Regents Park, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations.

No MeSH data available.