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Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction.

Yamamichi M, Miner BE - Evol Appl (2015)

Bottom Line: A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate.As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics.We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator-prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change.

No MeSH data available.


Effects of predator evolution, prey evolution, or both, on abundances following an environmental change that negatively affects predation rate. (A): X-axis is the environmental variable; positive values of larger magnitude cause larger decreases in predation rate. Y-axis is predator equilibrium abundance. Additive genetic variance of evolving traits in prey (V1) and predator (V2) is either 0 (no evolution) or 1 (with evolution). Red dots: no evolution (V1 = V2 = 0), or with predator evolution only (V1 = 0, V2 = 1), blue dots: with prey evolution only (V1 = 1, V2 = 0), or with both predator and prey evolution (V1 = V2 = 1). Note that the environmental variable was multiplied by −1 to be consistent with Fig. 2. Other parameters match those of Fig. 4 of Northfield and Ives (2013). (B): Effects of prey additive genetic variance on rescue of the predator following an environmental change detrimental to the predator (an abrupt change from 0 to 3 on the X-axis of 3A). Additive genetic variance of prey (V1) is 0.1 (blue), 0.05 (purple), 0.02 (red), or 0.01 (orange), whereas that of predator (V2) is 0.
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fig03: Effects of predator evolution, prey evolution, or both, on abundances following an environmental change that negatively affects predation rate. (A): X-axis is the environmental variable; positive values of larger magnitude cause larger decreases in predation rate. Y-axis is predator equilibrium abundance. Additive genetic variance of evolving traits in prey (V1) and predator (V2) is either 0 (no evolution) or 1 (with evolution). Red dots: no evolution (V1 = V2 = 0), or with predator evolution only (V1 = 0, V2 = 1), blue dots: with prey evolution only (V1 = 1, V2 = 0), or with both predator and prey evolution (V1 = V2 = 1). Note that the environmental variable was multiplied by −1 to be consistent with Fig. 2. Other parameters match those of Fig. 4 of Northfield and Ives (2013). (B): Effects of prey additive genetic variance on rescue of the predator following an environmental change detrimental to the predator (an abrupt change from 0 to 3 on the X-axis of 3A). Additive genetic variance of prey (V1) is 0.1 (blue), 0.05 (purple), 0.02 (red), or 0.01 (orange), whereas that of predator (V2) is 0.

Mentions: To evaluate the relative roles of indirect and direct rescue within the model framework of Northfield and Ives (2013), we examined cases in which only the prey, or only the predator, is permitted to evolve. We found that the occurrence of rescue depended on indirect effects: prey evolution alone is sufficient to rescue the predator from extinction, whereas predator evolution alone cannot prevent extinction (Fig. 3) using the same parameter values as the original study. This outcome was consistent under scenarios where environmental change affected prey growth rate (data not shown) or predation rate (Fig. 3A). This is not direct evolutionary rescue; rather, it is indirect evolutionary rescue because extinction of the predator is prevented by prey evolution, not by predator evolution. We therefore suggest a subtle yet important modification of the conclusions of Northfield and Ives (2013) with respect to predator–prey interactions: the fundamentally important process in their model is not coevolution per se; rather, the indirect effect of prey evolution is the cause of predator persistence in the face of detrimental environmental change.


Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction.

Yamamichi M, Miner BE - Evol Appl (2015)

Effects of predator evolution, prey evolution, or both, on abundances following an environmental change that negatively affects predation rate. (A): X-axis is the environmental variable; positive values of larger magnitude cause larger decreases in predation rate. Y-axis is predator equilibrium abundance. Additive genetic variance of evolving traits in prey (V1) and predator (V2) is either 0 (no evolution) or 1 (with evolution). Red dots: no evolution (V1 = V2 = 0), or with predator evolution only (V1 = 0, V2 = 1), blue dots: with prey evolution only (V1 = 1, V2 = 0), or with both predator and prey evolution (V1 = V2 = 1). Note that the environmental variable was multiplied by −1 to be consistent with Fig. 2. Other parameters match those of Fig. 4 of Northfield and Ives (2013). (B): Effects of prey additive genetic variance on rescue of the predator following an environmental change detrimental to the predator (an abrupt change from 0 to 3 on the X-axis of 3A). Additive genetic variance of prey (V1) is 0.1 (blue), 0.05 (purple), 0.02 (red), or 0.01 (orange), whereas that of predator (V2) is 0.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561568&req=5

fig03: Effects of predator evolution, prey evolution, or both, on abundances following an environmental change that negatively affects predation rate. (A): X-axis is the environmental variable; positive values of larger magnitude cause larger decreases in predation rate. Y-axis is predator equilibrium abundance. Additive genetic variance of evolving traits in prey (V1) and predator (V2) is either 0 (no evolution) or 1 (with evolution). Red dots: no evolution (V1 = V2 = 0), or with predator evolution only (V1 = 0, V2 = 1), blue dots: with prey evolution only (V1 = 1, V2 = 0), or with both predator and prey evolution (V1 = V2 = 1). Note that the environmental variable was multiplied by −1 to be consistent with Fig. 2. Other parameters match those of Fig. 4 of Northfield and Ives (2013). (B): Effects of prey additive genetic variance on rescue of the predator following an environmental change detrimental to the predator (an abrupt change from 0 to 3 on the X-axis of 3A). Additive genetic variance of prey (V1) is 0.1 (blue), 0.05 (purple), 0.02 (red), or 0.01 (orange), whereas that of predator (V2) is 0.
Mentions: To evaluate the relative roles of indirect and direct rescue within the model framework of Northfield and Ives (2013), we examined cases in which only the prey, or only the predator, is permitted to evolve. We found that the occurrence of rescue depended on indirect effects: prey evolution alone is sufficient to rescue the predator from extinction, whereas predator evolution alone cannot prevent extinction (Fig. 3) using the same parameter values as the original study. This outcome was consistent under scenarios where environmental change affected prey growth rate (data not shown) or predation rate (Fig. 3A). This is not direct evolutionary rescue; rather, it is indirect evolutionary rescue because extinction of the predator is prevented by prey evolution, not by predator evolution. We therefore suggest a subtle yet important modification of the conclusions of Northfield and Ives (2013) with respect to predator–prey interactions: the fundamentally important process in their model is not coevolution per se; rather, the indirect effect of prey evolution is the cause of predator persistence in the face of detrimental environmental change.

Bottom Line: A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate.As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics.We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator-prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change.

No MeSH data available.