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Is Your Neighborhood Designed to Support Physical Activity? A Brief Streetscape Audit Tool.

Sallis JF, Cain KL, Conway TL, Gavand KA, Millstein RA, Geremia CM, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Glanz K, King AC - Prev Chronic Dis (2015)

Bottom Line: Total microscale environment scores were significantly related to active transportation in all age groups.The total score was related to leisure physical activity and accelerometer measures only in children.The MAPS-Mini environment measure is short enough to be practical for use by community groups and planning agencies and is a valid substitute for the full version that is 8 times longer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 0824, 3900 Fifth Ave, Ste 310, San Diego, CA 92103. Email: jsallis@ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Macro level built environment factors (eg, street connectivity, walkability) are correlated with physical activity. Less studied but more modifiable microscale elements of the environment (eg, crosswalks) may also affect physical activity, but short audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of a 15-item neighborhood environment audit tool with a full version of the tool to assess neighborhood design on physical activity in 4 age groups.

Methods: From the 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measure of street design, sidewalks, and street crossings, we developed the 15-item version (MAPS-Mini) on the basis of associations with physical activity and attribute modifiability. As a sample of a likely walking route, MAPS-Mini was conducted on a 0.25-mile route from participant residences toward the nearest nonresidential destination for children (n = 758), adolescents (n = 897), younger adults (n = 1,655), and older adults (n = 367). Active transportation and leisure physical activity were measured with age-appropriate surveys, and accelerometers provided objective physical activity measures. Mixed-model regressions were conducted for each MAPS item and a total environment score, adjusted for demographics, participant clustering, and macrolevel walkability.

Results: Total scores of MAPS-Mini and the 120-item MAPS correlated at r = .85. Total microscale environment scores were significantly related to active transportation in all age groups. Items related to active transport in 3 age groups were presence of sidewalks, curb cuts, street lights, benches, and buffer between street and sidewalk. The total score was related to leisure physical activity and accelerometer measures only in children.

Conclusion: The MAPS-Mini environment measure is short enough to be practical for use by community groups and planning agencies and is a valid substitute for the full version that is 8 times longer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Association of active transport with MAPS-Mini scores (percentage of total possible) ranked in quintiles from the poorest (lowest quintile) to the best (highest quintile) activity supportive microscale attributes of the built environment in the 2 younger age groups. Quintiles for children ranged from 13.3% to 54.0% and quintiles for adolescents, 15.7% to 61.9%.
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Figure 1: Association of active transport with MAPS-Mini scores (percentage of total possible) ranked in quintiles from the poorest (lowest quintile) to the best (highest quintile) activity supportive microscale attributes of the built environment in the 2 younger age groups. Quintiles for children ranged from 13.3% to 54.0% and quintiles for adolescents, 15.7% to 61.9%.

Mentions: Figures 1 and 2 show the linear relation of the MAPS-Mini score (percentage of total possible) and reported active transport in all age groups. Older adults in the lowest quintile for MAPS-Mini scores walked for transport an average of 0.2 times per week, while those in the highest quintile walked an average of 0.8 times per week, a difference of 0.6 times per week. The respective difference between the lowest and highest quintiles in younger adults was 1.1 days per week. For a complete comparison of quintile total scores with age group activity scores, see Appendix. Although the relationships of MAPS-Mini total scores and active transport for children and adolescents were linear, as shown in the figures, the magnitude of effect was difficult to interpret because of the categorical response scale (never to ≥4 times per week).


Is Your Neighborhood Designed to Support Physical Activity? A Brief Streetscape Audit Tool.

Sallis JF, Cain KL, Conway TL, Gavand KA, Millstein RA, Geremia CM, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Glanz K, King AC - Prev Chronic Dis (2015)

Association of active transport with MAPS-Mini scores (percentage of total possible) ranked in quintiles from the poorest (lowest quintile) to the best (highest quintile) activity supportive microscale attributes of the built environment in the 2 younger age groups. Quintiles for children ranged from 13.3% to 54.0% and quintiles for adolescents, 15.7% to 61.9%.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561538&req=5

Figure 1: Association of active transport with MAPS-Mini scores (percentage of total possible) ranked in quintiles from the poorest (lowest quintile) to the best (highest quintile) activity supportive microscale attributes of the built environment in the 2 younger age groups. Quintiles for children ranged from 13.3% to 54.0% and quintiles for adolescents, 15.7% to 61.9%.
Mentions: Figures 1 and 2 show the linear relation of the MAPS-Mini score (percentage of total possible) and reported active transport in all age groups. Older adults in the lowest quintile for MAPS-Mini scores walked for transport an average of 0.2 times per week, while those in the highest quintile walked an average of 0.8 times per week, a difference of 0.6 times per week. The respective difference between the lowest and highest quintiles in younger adults was 1.1 days per week. For a complete comparison of quintile total scores with age group activity scores, see Appendix. Although the relationships of MAPS-Mini total scores and active transport for children and adolescents were linear, as shown in the figures, the magnitude of effect was difficult to interpret because of the categorical response scale (never to ≥4 times per week).

Bottom Line: Total microscale environment scores were significantly related to active transportation in all age groups.The total score was related to leisure physical activity and accelerometer measures only in children.The MAPS-Mini environment measure is short enough to be practical for use by community groups and planning agencies and is a valid substitute for the full version that is 8 times longer.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of California, San Diego, Mail Code 0824, 3900 Fifth Ave, Ste 310, San Diego, CA 92103. Email: jsallis@ucsd.edu.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Macro level built environment factors (eg, street connectivity, walkability) are correlated with physical activity. Less studied but more modifiable microscale elements of the environment (eg, crosswalks) may also affect physical activity, but short audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of a 15-item neighborhood environment audit tool with a full version of the tool to assess neighborhood design on physical activity in 4 age groups.

Methods: From the 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) measure of street design, sidewalks, and street crossings, we developed the 15-item version (MAPS-Mini) on the basis of associations with physical activity and attribute modifiability. As a sample of a likely walking route, MAPS-Mini was conducted on a 0.25-mile route from participant residences toward the nearest nonresidential destination for children (n = 758), adolescents (n = 897), younger adults (n = 1,655), and older adults (n = 367). Active transportation and leisure physical activity were measured with age-appropriate surveys, and accelerometers provided objective physical activity measures. Mixed-model regressions were conducted for each MAPS item and a total environment score, adjusted for demographics, participant clustering, and macrolevel walkability.

Results: Total scores of MAPS-Mini and the 120-item MAPS correlated at r = .85. Total microscale environment scores were significantly related to active transportation in all age groups. Items related to active transport in 3 age groups were presence of sidewalks, curb cuts, street lights, benches, and buffer between street and sidewalk. The total score was related to leisure physical activity and accelerometer measures only in children.

Conclusion: The MAPS-Mini environment measure is short enough to be practical for use by community groups and planning agencies and is a valid substitute for the full version that is 8 times longer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus