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Spatial Resolution and Refractive Index Contrast of Resonant Photonic Crystal Surfaces for Biosensing.

Triggs GJ, Fischer M, Stellinga D, Scullion MG, Evans GJ, Krauss TF - IEEE Photonics J (2015)

Bottom Line: Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10(-2).At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for Δn < 0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 μm for our device.In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of York, York YO24 1UB, U.K.

ABSTRACT

By depositing a resolution test pattern on top of a Si3N4 photonic crystal resonant surface, we have measured the dependence of spatial resolution on refractive index contrast Δn. Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10(-2). We also compare 1-D and 2-D gratings, taking into account different incidence polarizations, leading to a better understanding of the excitation and propagation of the resonant modes in these structures, as well as how this contributes to the spatial resolution. At Δn = 0.077, we observe resolutions of 2 and 6 μm parallel to and perpendicular to the grooves of a 1-D grating, respectively, and show that for polarized illumination of a 2-D grating, resolution remains asymmetrical. Illumination of a 2-D grating at 45° results in symmetric resolution. At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for Δn < 0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 μm for our device. In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution.

No MeSH data available.


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Resonance images of resist blocks deposited on top of a 2-D resonant grating. The incident polarization is in the vertical direction for all cases, as indicated. The sample is rotated from (a) 0° to (b) 45° and (c) 90°, and the orientation of the hole array is indicated in each case. The width and spacing of the five groups of blocks shown is 3.5 μm, 3.0 μm, 2.5 μm, 2.0 μm, and 1.5 μm.
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Figure 4: Resonance images of resist blocks deposited on top of a 2-D resonant grating. The incident polarization is in the vertical direction for all cases, as indicated. The sample is rotated from (a) 0° to (b) 45° and (c) 90°, and the orientation of the hole array is indicated in each case. The width and spacing of the five groups of blocks shown is 3.5 μm, 3.0 μm, 2.5 μm, 2.0 μm, and 1.5 μm.

Mentions: In order to test this hypothesis, we also examined 2-D gratings. If our model is consistent, we would expect that the resolution is symmetric in x and y and that it assumes the lower value (approx. 6.0 μm) determined with the 1-D grating. This expectation assumes that the incident light is unpolarised, thus ensuring that the electric field vector projects on to two equal components along both lattice directions. Since a 2-D grating provides both kx and ky components, a resonant mode is excited that oscillates in both directions as in Fig. 3(b). In order to study this, we fabricated square arrays of holes (for details, see above), as a resonant surface with a resonance wavelength and linewidth very similar to that in the 1-D case. Resonance images of resist blocks on the 2-D grating are shown in Fig. 4, where the entire sample has been rotated whilst keeping the incident polarization direction constant. We find equal resolution along both lattice directions for the case where incident polarization is aligned along the diagonal (45°) [see Fig. 4 (b)], in agreement with our model. The 0° and 90° cases (see Fig. 4(a) and (b), respectively) show that resolution is different along the lattice directions, similar to the case of the 1-D grating, even though the grating itself is identical along x and y. We note that resolution is best in the direction of polarization.


Spatial Resolution and Refractive Index Contrast of Resonant Photonic Crystal Surfaces for Biosensing.

Triggs GJ, Fischer M, Stellinga D, Scullion MG, Evans GJ, Krauss TF - IEEE Photonics J (2015)

Resonance images of resist blocks deposited on top of a 2-D resonant grating. The incident polarization is in the vertical direction for all cases, as indicated. The sample is rotated from (a) 0° to (b) 45° and (c) 90°, and the orientation of the hole array is indicated in each case. The width and spacing of the five groups of blocks shown is 3.5 μm, 3.0 μm, 2.5 μm, 2.0 μm, and 1.5 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561521&req=5

Figure 4: Resonance images of resist blocks deposited on top of a 2-D resonant grating. The incident polarization is in the vertical direction for all cases, as indicated. The sample is rotated from (a) 0° to (b) 45° and (c) 90°, and the orientation of the hole array is indicated in each case. The width and spacing of the five groups of blocks shown is 3.5 μm, 3.0 μm, 2.5 μm, 2.0 μm, and 1.5 μm.
Mentions: In order to test this hypothesis, we also examined 2-D gratings. If our model is consistent, we would expect that the resolution is symmetric in x and y and that it assumes the lower value (approx. 6.0 μm) determined with the 1-D grating. This expectation assumes that the incident light is unpolarised, thus ensuring that the electric field vector projects on to two equal components along both lattice directions. Since a 2-D grating provides both kx and ky components, a resonant mode is excited that oscillates in both directions as in Fig. 3(b). In order to study this, we fabricated square arrays of holes (for details, see above), as a resonant surface with a resonance wavelength and linewidth very similar to that in the 1-D case. Resonance images of resist blocks on the 2-D grating are shown in Fig. 4, where the entire sample has been rotated whilst keeping the incident polarization direction constant. We find equal resolution along both lattice directions for the case where incident polarization is aligned along the diagonal (45°) [see Fig. 4 (b)], in agreement with our model. The 0° and 90° cases (see Fig. 4(a) and (b), respectively) show that resolution is different along the lattice directions, similar to the case of the 1-D grating, even though the grating itself is identical along x and y. We note that resolution is best in the direction of polarization.

Bottom Line: Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10(-2).At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for Δn < 0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 μm for our device.In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physics, University of York, York YO24 1UB, U.K.

ABSTRACT

By depositing a resolution test pattern on top of a Si3N4 photonic crystal resonant surface, we have measured the dependence of spatial resolution on refractive index contrast Δn. Our experimental results and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations at different refractive index contrasts show that the spatial resolution of our device reduces with reduced contrast, which is an important consideration in biosensing, where the contrast may be of order 10(-2). We also compare 1-D and 2-D gratings, taking into account different incidence polarizations, leading to a better understanding of the excitation and propagation of the resonant modes in these structures, as well as how this contributes to the spatial resolution. At Δn = 0.077, we observe resolutions of 2 and 6 μm parallel to and perpendicular to the grooves of a 1-D grating, respectively, and show that for polarized illumination of a 2-D grating, resolution remains asymmetrical. Illumination of a 2-D grating at 45° results in symmetric resolution. At very low index contrast, the resolution worsens dramatically, particularly for Δn < 0.01, where we observe a resolution exceeding 10 μm for our device. In addition, we measure a reduction in the resonance linewidth as the index contrast becomes lower, corresponding to a longer resonant mode propagation length in the structure and contributing to the change in spatial resolution.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus