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Underpinning Starch Biology with in vitro Studies on Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes and Biosynthetic Glycomaterials.

O'Neill EC, Field RA - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Bottom Line: Advances are hampered by the challenges inherent in analyzing enzymes that operate across the solid-liquid interface.Glyconanotechnology, in the form of glucan-coated sensor chips and metal nanoparticles, present novel opportunities to address this problem.Herein, we review recent developments aimed at the bottom-up generation and self-assembly of starch-like materials, in order to better understand which enzymes are required for starch granule biogenesis and metabolism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.

ABSTRACT
Starch makes up more than half of the calories in the human diet and is also a valuable bulk commodity that is used across the food, brewing and distilling, medicines and renewable materials sectors. Despite its importance, our understanding of how plants make starch, and what controls the deposition of this insoluble, polymeric, liquid crystalline material, remains rather limited. Advances are hampered by the challenges inherent in analyzing enzymes that operate across the solid-liquid interface. Glyconanotechnology, in the form of glucan-coated sensor chips and metal nanoparticles, present novel opportunities to address this problem. Herein, we review recent developments aimed at the bottom-up generation and self-assembly of starch-like materials, in order to better understand which enzymes are required for starch granule biogenesis and metabolism.

No MeSH data available.


Structure of the starch granule. Starch granules are composed of α-1,4-glucans with some α-1,6-branches, placing them parallel to each other, allowing double helix formation. The branches are specifically placed, giving regions of branching, known as amorphous lamella, and regions of exclusively linear chains which form crystalline lamella, and these lamella form defined growth rings. Specific enzymes are needed to synthesize and degrade this highly ordered insoluble structure. Coultate (2002) – Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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Figure 1: Structure of the starch granule. Starch granules are composed of α-1,4-glucans with some α-1,6-branches, placing them parallel to each other, allowing double helix formation. The branches are specifically placed, giving regions of branching, known as amorphous lamella, and regions of exclusively linear chains which form crystalline lamella, and these lamella form defined growth rings. Specific enzymes are needed to synthesize and degrade this highly ordered insoluble structure. Coultate (2002) – Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Mentions: Starch granules comprise linear α-1,4-glucans with periodic α-1,6-branches, giving long chains capable of wrapping around each other to form double helical arrangements, which stack side by side, forming alternating layers of highly ordered liquid crystalline lamella interspersed with amorphous regions (Figure 1) (Waigh et al., 1998). This self-organizing nanostructure makes the surface of a starch granule highly resistant to enzymatic attack, requiring specialized enzymes to initiate degradation.


Underpinning Starch Biology with in vitro Studies on Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes and Biosynthetic Glycomaterials.

O'Neill EC, Field RA - Front Bioeng Biotechnol (2015)

Structure of the starch granule. Starch granules are composed of α-1,4-glucans with some α-1,6-branches, placing them parallel to each other, allowing double helix formation. The branches are specifically placed, giving regions of branching, known as amorphous lamella, and regions of exclusively linear chains which form crystalline lamella, and these lamella form defined growth rings. Specific enzymes are needed to synthesize and degrade this highly ordered insoluble structure. Coultate (2002) – Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4561517&req=5

Figure 1: Structure of the starch granule. Starch granules are composed of α-1,4-glucans with some α-1,6-branches, placing them parallel to each other, allowing double helix formation. The branches are specifically placed, giving regions of branching, known as amorphous lamella, and regions of exclusively linear chains which form crystalline lamella, and these lamella form defined growth rings. Specific enzymes are needed to synthesize and degrade this highly ordered insoluble structure. Coultate (2002) – Reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Mentions: Starch granules comprise linear α-1,4-glucans with periodic α-1,6-branches, giving long chains capable of wrapping around each other to form double helical arrangements, which stack side by side, forming alternating layers of highly ordered liquid crystalline lamella interspersed with amorphous regions (Figure 1) (Waigh et al., 1998). This self-organizing nanostructure makes the surface of a starch granule highly resistant to enzymatic attack, requiring specialized enzymes to initiate degradation.

Bottom Line: Advances are hampered by the challenges inherent in analyzing enzymes that operate across the solid-liquid interface.Glyconanotechnology, in the form of glucan-coated sensor chips and metal nanoparticles, present novel opportunities to address this problem.Herein, we review recent developments aimed at the bottom-up generation and self-assembly of starch-like materials, in order to better understand which enzymes are required for starch granule biogenesis and metabolism.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.

ABSTRACT
Starch makes up more than half of the calories in the human diet and is also a valuable bulk commodity that is used across the food, brewing and distilling, medicines and renewable materials sectors. Despite its importance, our understanding of how plants make starch, and what controls the deposition of this insoluble, polymeric, liquid crystalline material, remains rather limited. Advances are hampered by the challenges inherent in analyzing enzymes that operate across the solid-liquid interface. Glyconanotechnology, in the form of glucan-coated sensor chips and metal nanoparticles, present novel opportunities to address this problem. Herein, we review recent developments aimed at the bottom-up generation and self-assembly of starch-like materials, in order to better understand which enzymes are required for starch granule biogenesis and metabolism.

No MeSH data available.